Economic Snapshot | Trade and Globalization

U.S. Trade Deficit with Japan Resulted in Net Job Losses in All but Three Congressional Districts

Currency manipulation by Japan—the second largest currency manipulator in the world—is a major driver of the U.S.-Japan trade deficit, which cost nearly 900,000 U.S. jobs in 2013.

As the map below shows, the U.S. trade deficit with Japan resulted in net job losses in all but three U.S. congressional districts, and has displaced up to 6,000 jobs in a single U.S. congressional district. The 10th Congressional District in Michigan was the hardest hit district in the country, in terms of jobs displaced as a share of total district employment, losing 5,500 jobs (1.78 percent of total employment). In the 20 congressional districts with the largest shares of jobs lost, losses ranged from 3,100 to 6,000 jobs. Among the top 20 U.S. congressional districts, job losses as a share of district employment ranged from 1.17 percent to 1.78 percent. The states hardest hit by job loss were Michigan (with 10 districts in the top 20, followed by Indiana (four districts), Ohio and South Carolina (two districts each), and California and Wisconsin (one each).

ECONOMIC SNAPSHOT

U.S. trade deficit with Japan resulted in net job losses in all but three congressional districts: Net U.S. jobs displaced by U.S. trade deficit with Japan, by congressional district, 2013

Rank State District Net jobs displaced District employment Jobs displaced as a share of district employment
235 Alabama 1 1,600 283,000 0.57%
132 Alabama 2 1,900 276,900 0.69%
24 Alabama 3 3,100 274,600 1.13%
43 Alabama 4 2,500 262,900 0.95%
66 Alabama 5 2,600 311,900 0.83%
97 Alabama 6 2,400 318,400 0.75%
113 Alabama 7 1,800 253,500 0.71%
420 Alaska Statewide 1,100 344,300 0.32%
408 Arizona 1 1,000 264,900 0.38%
312 Arizona 2 1,500 299,200 0.50%
417 Arizona 3 900 262,200 0.34%
386 Arizona 4 1,000 233,500 0.43%
153 Arizona 5 2,100 317,900 0.66%
253 Arizona 6 2,000 366,000 0.55%
201 Arizona 7 1,700 282,300 0.60%
266 Arizona 8 1,600 301,700 0.53%
178 Arizona 9 2,300 360,300 0.64%
228 Arkansas 1 1,600 277,400 0.58%
263 Arkansas 2 1,800 336,300 0.54%
143 Arkansas 3 2,200 327,000 0.67%
259 Arkansas 4 1,600 295,100 0.54%
423 California 1 800 260,300 0.31%
418 California 2 1,100 323,100 0.34%
430 California 3 700 286,600 0.24%
297 California 4 1,500 294,200 0.51%
385 California 5 1,400 326,800 0.43%
365 California 6 1,300 288,300 0.45%
295 California 7 1,600 313,200 0.51%
298 California 8 1,200 235,500 0.51%
399 California 9 1,100 275,300 0.40%
402 California 10 1,100 277,200 0.40%
277 California 11 1,700 324,200 0.52%
276 California 12 2,100 399,400 0.53%
243 California 13 1,900 340,200 0.56%
249 California 14 2,000 364,000 0.55%
77 California 15 2,700 336,400 0.80%
434 California 16 0 244,900 0.00%
13 California 17 4,500 346,100 1.30%
38 California 18 3,400 344,500 0.99%
32 California 19 3,400 324,000 1.05%
433 California 20 100 302,500 0.03%
436 California 21 -1,300 243,800 -0.53%
431 California 22 500 289,600 0.17%
427 California 23 800 274,100 0.29%
428 California 24 900 323,500 0.28%
206 California 25 1,800 302,700 0.59%
400 California 26 1,300 325,900 0.40%
292 California 27 1,700 332,200 0.51%
314 California 28 1,800 359,900 0.50%
240 California 29 1,700 303,700 0.56%
310 California 30 1,800 358,200 0.50%
287 California 31 1,500 292,200 0.51%
197 California 32 1,800 293,800 0.61%
280 California 33 1,900 364,200 0.52%
333 California 34 1,500 309,400 0.48%
148 California 35 1,900 284,800 0.67%
412 California 36 900 251,900 0.36%
300 California 37 1,700 335,600 0.51%
177 California 38 2,000 313,300 0.64%
150 California 39 2,200 332,000 0.66%
232 California 40 1,600 280,500 0.57%
187 California 41 1,700 271,900 0.63%
164 California 42 2,000 307,000 0.65%
207 California 43 1,800 302,800 0.59%
121 California 44 1,900 270,600 0.70%
166 California 45 2,300 354,400 0.65%
124 California 46 2,200 314,400 0.70%
223 California 47 1,900 327,600 0.58%
137 California 48 2,400 352,600 0.68%
203 California 49 1,800 299,700 0.60%
302 California 50 1,500 296,200 0.51%
389 California 51 1,100 258,600 0.43%
156 California 52 2,300 350,100 0.66%
244 California 53 1,900 342,700 0.55%
254 Colorado 1 2,100 384,400 0.55%
231 Colorado 2 2,200 384,600 0.57%
411 Colorado 3 1,200 331,400 0.36%
350 Colorado 4 1,600 344,100 0.46%
301 Colorado 5 1,600 315,900 0.51%
285 Colorado 6 1,900 369,600 0.51%
246 Colorado 7 2,000 362,500 0.55%
155 Connecticut 1 2,300 349,800 0.66%
183 Connecticut 2 2,200 348,600 0.63%
163 Connecticut 3 2,300 352,700 0.65%
171 Connecticut 4 2,200 343,000 0.64%
88 Connecticut 5 2,700 348,300 0.78%
387 Delaware Statewide 1,800 420,400 0.43%
405 DC Statewide 1,200 310,600 0.39%
388 Florida 1 1,300 303,900 0.43%
380 Florida 2 1,300 301,500 0.43%
401 Florida 3 1,100 277,000 0.40%
255 Florida 4 1,800 329,900 0.55%
272 Florida 5 1,500 284,000 0.53%
323 Florida 6 1,400 283,200 0.49%
273 Florida 7 1,700 322,500 0.53%
237 Florida 8 1,600 283,400 0.56%
341 Florida 9 1,500 317,200 0.47%
289 Florida 10 1,700 331,500 0.51%
304 Florida 11 1,100 217,400 0.51%
269 Florida 12 1,500 283,200 0.53%
221 Florida 13 1,800 309,200 0.58%
267 Florida 14 1,700 320,700 0.53%
353 Florida 15 1,400 304,200 0.46%
257 Florida 16 1,500 276,100 0.54%
432 Florida 17 400 248,700 0.16%
358 Florida 18 1,300 284,000 0.46%
364 Florida 19 1,200 265,200 0.45%
382 Florida 20 1,300 302,100 0.43%
340 Florida 21 1,500 316,800 0.47%
291 Florida 22 1,700 332,000 0.51%
313 Florida 23 1,700 339,900 0.50%
374 Florida 24 1,300 293,400 0.44%
383 Florida 25 1,400 326,000 0.43%
367 Florida 26 1,500 335,600 0.45%
368 Florida 27 1,400 313,600 0.45%
393 Georgia 1 1,200 286,100 0.42%
376 Georgia 2 1,100 251,200 0.44%
63 Georgia 3 2,400 285,800 0.84%
227 Georgia 4 1,800 311,700 0.58%
264 Georgia 5 1,700 318,100 0.53%
222 Georgia 6 2,100 361,200 0.58%
118 Georgia 7 2,200 312,500 0.70%
337 Georgia 8 1,300 272,700 0.48%
147 Georgia 9 1,900 284,600 0.67%
211 Georgia 10 1,700 287,400 0.59%
193 Georgia 11 2,100 340,900 0.62%
261 Georgia 12 1,500 278,200 0.54%
256 Georgia 13 1,700 312,800 0.54%
53 Georgia 14 2,600 290,700 0.89%
392 Hawaii 1 1,400 330,100 0.42%
424 Hawaii 2 900 299,400 0.30%
332 Idaho 1 1,600 329,900 0.48%
422 Idaho 2 1,100 355,000 0.31%
192 Illinois 1 1,800 290,200 0.62%
111 Illinois 2 2,000 278,200 0.72%
130 Illinois 3 2,200 319,500 0.69%
82 Illinois 4 2,600 326,600 0.80%
162 Illinois 5 2,600 397,600 0.65%
45 Illinois 6 3,300 355,600 0.93%
233 Illinois 7 1,700 298,500 0.57%
57 Illinois 8 3,200 366,300 0.87%
181 Illinois 9 2,200 347,200 0.63%
79 Illinois 10 2,600 324,800 0.80%
86 Illinois 11 2,700 347,300 0.78%
125 Illinois 12 2,100 301,000 0.70%
247 Illinois 13 1,800 326,600 0.55%
54 Illinois 14 3,100 351,000 0.88%
93 Illinois 15 2,400 316,500 0.76%
51 Illinois 16 3,000 330,800 0.91%
34 Illinois 17 3,200 311,700 1.03%
48 Illinois 18 3,100 337,500 0.92%
31 Indiana 1 3,300 310,600 1.06%
5 Indiana 2 5,000 317,800 1.57%
7 Indiana 3 4,900 327,000 1.50%
16 Indiana 4 4,000 328,500 1.22%
94 Indiana 5 2,700 357,700 0.75%
9 Indiana 6 4,400 311,900 1.41%
67 Indiana 7 2,600 312,200 0.83%
33 Indiana 8 3,400 329,300 1.03%
36 Indiana 9 3,400 339,400 1.00%
83 Iowa 1 3,100 392,300 0.79%
87 Iowa 2 2,900 373,400 0.78%
215 Iowa 3 2,300 390,800 0.59%
229 Iowa 4 2,200 382,300 0.58%
421 Kansas 1 1,100 345,900 0.32%
216 Kansas 2 2,000 339,900 0.59%
191 Kansas 3 2,300 370,300 0.62%
296 Kansas 4 1,700 332,900 0.51%
62 Kentucky 1 2,400 284,800 0.84%
28 Kentucky 2 3,500 317,100 1.10%
59 Kentucky 3 2,900 333,300 0.87%
64 Kentucky 4 2,800 333,500 0.84%
133 Kentucky 5 1,600 234,300 0.68%
41 Kentucky 6 3,200 335,400 0.95%
299 Louisiana 1 1,800 354,000 0.51%
360 Louisiana 2 1,500 329,000 0.46%
330 Louisiana 3 1,600 328,100 0.49%
284 Louisiana 4 1,600 311,100 0.51%
404 Louisiana 5 1,100 283,900 0.39%
352 Louisiana 6 1,700 367,800 0.46%
317 Maine 1 1,700 340,400 0.50%
410 Maine 2 1,100 302,700 0.36%
319 Maryland 1 1,700 342,300 0.50%
334 Maryland 2 1,700 351,700 0.48%
354 Maryland 3 1,700 369,500 0.46%
375 Maryland 4 1,700 384,100 0.44%
397 Maryland 5 1,500 368,200 0.41%
347 Maryland 6 1,700 363,200 0.47%
373 Maryland 7 1,400 315,700 0.44%
390 Maryland 8 1,700 400,100 0.42%
169 Massachusetts 1 2,200 341,000 0.65%
122 Massachusetts 2 2,500 356,500 0.70%
70 Massachusetts 3 2,900 355,400 0.82%
173 Massachusetts 4 2,400 374,800 0.64%
209 Massachusetts 5 2,300 387,400 0.59%
212 Massachusetts 6 2,200 372,000 0.59%
355 Massachusetts 7 1,700 369,800 0.46%
218 Massachusetts 8 2,200 375,600 0.59%
294 Massachusetts 9 1,800 352,300 0.51%
129 Michigan 1 2,000 290,200 0.69%
15 Michigan 2 4,000 315,900 1.27%
21 Michigan 3 3,600 315,300 1.14%
39 Michigan 4 2,800 286,300 0.98%
20 Michigan 5 3,100 264,800 1.17%
25 Michigan 6 3,500 310,400 1.13%
6 Michigan 7 4,500 299,100 1.50%
8 Michigan 8 4,900 330,800 1.48%
3 Michigan 9 5,500 326,100 1.69%
1 Michigan 10 5,500 308,700 1.78%
2 Michigan 11 6,000 342,100 1.75%
11 Michigan 12 4,200 313,800 1.34%
10 Michigan 13 3,200 230,700 1.39%
12 Michigan 14 3,400 257,700 1.32%
200 Minnesota 1 2,100 348,200 0.60%
109 Minnesota 2 2,600 358,300 0.73%
60 Minnesota 3 3,000 353,800 0.85%
159 Minnesota 4 2,200 336,000 0.65%
106 Minnesota 5 2,600 352,000 0.74%
76 Minnesota 6 2,800 348,700 0.80%
359 Minnesota 7 1,500 328,700 0.46%
210 Minnesota 8 1,800 303,400 0.59%
99 Mississippi 1 2,300 305,600 0.75%
205 Mississippi 2 1,600 266,900 0.60%
274 Mississippi 3 1,600 303,900 0.53%
213 Mississippi 4 1,800 304,900 0.59%
429 Montana Statewide 1,200 480,000 0.25%
258 Missouri 1 1,800 331,500 0.54%
154 Missouri 2 2,500 378,600 0.66%
142 Missouri 3 2,500 370,000 0.68%
245 Missouri 4 1,800 324,900 0.55%
126 Missouri 5 2,400 345,300 0.70%
167 Missouri 6 2,300 355,900 0.65%
134 Missouri 7 2,300 337,400 0.68%
119 Missouri 8 2,100 298,500 0.70%
271 Nebraska 1 1,700 321,700 0.53%
305 Nebraska 2 1,600 316,300 0.51%
419 Nebraska 3 1,000 305,600 0.33%
324 Nevada 1 1,400 284,700 0.49%
249 Nevada 2 1,700 309,400 0.55%
370 Nevada 3 1,500 336,500 0.45%
377 Nevada 4 1,200 274,300 0.44%
107 New Hampshire 1 2,600 352,600 0.74%
71 New Hampshire 2 2,700 332,200 0.81%
239 New Jersey 1 1,900 339,200 0.56%
398 New Jersey 2 1,300 324,400 0.40%
279 New Jersey 3 1,800 344,200 0.52%
326 New Jersey 4 1,600 326,400 0.49%
168 New Jersey 5 2,300 356,100 0.65%
208 New Jersey 6 2,100 353,600 0.59%
199 New Jersey 7 2,300 377,100 0.61%
234 New Jersey 8 2,100 371,000 0.57%
238 New Jersey 9 1,900 338,500 0.56%
335 New Jersey 10 1,500 310,700 0.48%
219 New Jersey 11 2,100 358,800 0.59%
262 New Jersey 12 1,900 352,400 0.54%
336 New Mexico 1 1,500 311,900 0.48%
426 New Mexico 2 800 273,100 0.29%
406 New Mexico 3 1,100 284,800 0.39%
320 New York 1 1,700 343,300 0.50%
242 New York 2 2,000 357,800 0.56%
306 New York 3 1,700 336,700 0.50%
348 New York 4 1,600 342,500 0.47%
339 New York 5 1,600 336,200 0.48%
356 New York 6 1,500 327,000 0.46%
379 New York 7 1,400 322,200 0.43%
371 New York 8 1,300 292,700 0.44%
381 New York 9 1,400 324,900 0.43%
372 New York 10 1,600 360,300 0.44%
395 New York 11 1,300 317,500 0.41%
311 New York 12 2,100 418,800 0.50%
394 New York 13 1,300 317,200 0.41%
346 New York 14 1,600 341,800 0.47%
344 New York 15 1,200 255,900 0.47%
322 New York 16 1,600 323,600 0.49%
345 New York 17 1,600 341,400 0.47%
260 New York 18 1,800 332,100 0.54%
327 New York 19 1,600 327,300 0.49%
308 New York 20 1,800 357,600 0.50%
363 New York 21 1,400 309,200 0.45%
158 New York 22 2,100 320,200 0.66%
116 New York 23 2,300 324,600 0.71%
144 New York 24 2,200 327,300 0.67%
88 New York 25 2,600 335,400 0.78%
172 New York 26 2,100 327,700 0.64%
104 New York 27 2,500 337,800 0.74%
251 North Carolina 1 1,600 291,800 0.55%
128 North Carolina 2 2,100 303,800 0.69%
357 North Carolina 3 1,400 305,600 0.46%
288 North Carolina 4 1,800 350,900 0.51%
105 North Carolina 5 2,400 324,500 0.74%
120 North Carolina 6 2,400 341,800 0.70%
415 North Carolina 7 1,100 315,400 0.35%
92 North Carolina 8 2,300 301,700 0.76%
73 North Carolina 9 3,000 371,400 0.81%
52 North Carolina 10 2,900 324,000 0.90%
141 North Carolina 11 2,000 295,400 0.68%
157 North Carolina 12 2,100 319,800 0.66%
204 North Carolina 13 2,100 349,900 0.60%
425 North Dakota Statewide 1,100 370,800 0.30%
110 Ohio 1 2,400 332,300 0.72%
90 Ohio 2 2,500 323,600 0.77%
152 Ohio 3 2,200 333,000 0.66%
4 Ohio 4 5,100 317,900 1.60%
14 Ohio 5 4,300 334,200 1.29%
40 Ohio 6 2,800 292,300 0.96%
23 Ohio 7 3,700 326,800 1.13%
29 Ohio 8 3,600 328,800 1.09%
30 Ohio 9 3,400 315,000 1.08%
47 Ohio 10 2,900 312,800 0.93%
80 Ohio 11 2,200 275,200 0.80%
74 Ohio 12 2,900 359,500 0.81%
26 Ohio 13 3,600 320,400 1.12%
37 Ohio 14 3,500 349,700 1.00%
103 Ohio 15 2,500 336,400 0.74%
45 Ohio 16 3,300 355,600 0.93%
78 Oklahoma 1 2,900 361,900 0.80%
160 Oklahoma 2 1,900 290,300 0.65%
282 Oklahoma 3 1,700 329,900 0.52%
185 Oklahoma 4 2,200 350,900 0.63%
230 Oklahoma 5 2,000 348,800 0.57%
55 Oregon 1 3,300 377,200 0.87%
414 Oregon 2 1,100 314,200 0.35%
186 Oregon 3 2,400 383,300 0.63%
403 Oregon 4 1,200 309,000 0.39%
384 Oregon 5 1,400 326,700 0.43%
290 Pennsylvania 1 1,400 273,300 0.51%
338 Pennsylvania 2 1,300 273,100 0.48%
44 Pennsylvania 3 3,000 317,700 0.94%
108 Pennsylvania 4 2,500 342,900 0.73%
69 Pennsylvania 5 2,600 316,800 0.82%
151 Pennsylvania 6 2,400 362,300 0.66%
241 Pennsylvania 7 1,900 339,700 0.56%
170 Pennsylvania 8 2,300 357,800 0.64%
95 Pennsylvania 9 2,300 304,800 0.75%
175 Pennsylvania 10 2,000 312,500 0.64%
180 Pennsylvania 11 2,100 329,300 0.64%
98 Pennsylvania 12 2,500 331,900 0.75%
139 Pennsylvania 13 2,300 339,000 0.68%
217 Pennsylvania 14 1,900 323,200 0.59%
84 Pennsylvania 15 2,700 343,800 0.79%
198 Pennsylvania 16 2,000 327,700 0.61%
176 Pennsylvania 17 2,000 312,600 0.64%
72 Pennsylvania 18 2,800 345,000 0.81%
140 Rhode Island 1 1,700 250,900 0.68%
195 Rhode Island 2 1,600 260,300 0.61%
123 South Carolina 1 2,100 299,800 0.70%
161 South Carolina 2 2,000 305,600 0.65%
19 South Carolina 3 3,100 264,500 1.17%
17 South Carolina 4 3,600 301,000 1.20%
58 South Carolina 5 2,400 275,200 0.87%
113 South Carolina 6 1,800 253,500 0.71%
146 South Carolina 7 1,800 269,400 0.67%
396 South Dakota 1 1,700 415,600 0.41%
50 Tennessee 1 2,700 297,600 0.91%
91 Tennessee 2 2,500 327,200 0.76%
49 Tennessee 3 2,700 297,000 0.91%
27 Tennessee 4 3,500 314,500 1.11%
189 Tennessee 5 2,200 353,400 0.62%
42 Tennessee 6 2,900 304,500 0.95%
56 Tennessee 7 2,500 285,800 0.87%
65 Tennessee 8 2,500 299,200 0.84%
214 Tennessee 9 1,800 305,300 0.59%
179 Texas 1 1,900 297,700 0.64%
68 Texas 2 3,000 364,600 0.82%
96 Texas 3 2,800 371,200 0.75%
202 Texas 4 1,800 299,300 0.60%
236 Texas 5 1,700 300,800 0.57%
131 Texas 6 2,400 348,800 0.69%
102 Texas 7 2,800 376,300 0.74%
112 Texas 8 2,200 309,200 0.71%
196 Texas 9 2,000 326,400 0.61%
145 Texas 10 2,300 342,600 0.67%
248 Texas 11 1,700 308,800 0.55%
135 Texas 12 2,300 337,500 0.68%
362 Texas 13 1,400 309,000 0.45%
321 Texas 14 1,500 303,300 0.49%
351 Texas 15 1,300 280,900 0.46%
265 Texas 16 1,500 281,300 0.53%
281 Texas 17 1,700 329,300 0.52%
100 Texas 18 2,300 306,400 0.75%
413 Texas 19 1,100 310,700 0.35%
286 Texas 20 1,600 311,400 0.51%
275 Texas 21 1,900 361,200 0.53%
188 Texas 22 2,200 352,500 0.62%
407 Texas 23 1,100 289,700 0.38%
127 Texas 24 2,700 388,600 0.69%
184 Texas 25 1,900 302,200 0.63%
138 Texas 26 2,500 368,300 0.68%
325 Texas 27 1,500 305,600 0.49%
329 Texas 28 1,300 266,300 0.49%
85 Texas 29 2,300 292,900 0.79%
252 Texas 30 1,600 292,300 0.55%
136 Texas 31 2,200 323,000 0.68%
101 Texas 32 2,700 360,900 0.75%
117 Texas 33 2,000 283,900 0.70%
409 Texas 34 900 242,200 0.37%
309 Texas 35 1,600 318,200 0.50%
165 Texas 36 1,900 291,900 0.65%
174 Utah 1 2,000 312,400 0.64%
278 Utah 2 1,600 305,700 0.52%
226 Utah 3 1,800 311,200 0.58%
149 Utah 4 2,200 331,500 0.66%
327 Vermont Statewide 1,600 327,300 0.49%
361 Virginia 1 1,600 352,400 0.45%
268 Virginia 2 1,800 339,800 0.53%
316 Virginia 3 1,600 320,100 0.50%
225 Virginia 4 1,900 327,900 0.58%
303 Virginia 5 1,600 316,100 0.51%
270 Virginia 6 1,800 339,900 0.53%
349 Virginia 7 1,700 364,600 0.47%
391 Virginia 8 1,800 423,700 0.42%
75 Virginia 9 2,400 298,400 0.80%
307 Virginia 10 1,900 376,400 0.50%
366 Virginia 11 1,800 400,900 0.45%
293 Washington 1 1,700 332,300 0.51%
343 Washington 2 1,500 318,900 0.47%
182 Washington 3 1,800 284,500 0.63%
435 Washington 4 -100 284,500 -0.04%
283 Washington 5 1,500 291,500 0.51%
378 Washington 6 1,200 275,500 0.44%
315 Washington 7 1,900 380,000 0.50%
342 Washington 8 1,500 318,000 0.47%
318 Washington 9 1,700 341,400 0.50%
369 Washington 10 1,300 291,300 0.45%
224 West Virginia 1 1,500 258,700 0.58%
331 West Virginia 2 1,300 266,900 0.49%
220 West Virginia 3 1,300 223,000 0.58%
35 Wisconsin 1 3,500 342,500 1.02%
194 Wisconsin 2 2,400 390,000 0.62%
190 Wisconsin 3 2,200 353,500 0.62%
61 Wisconsin 4 2,600 308,000 0.84%
22 Wisconsin 5 4,200 370,600 1.13%
18 Wisconsin 6 4,200 353,600 1.19%
115 Wisconsin 7 2,400 338,400 0.71%
81 Wisconsin 8 2,900 362,800 0.80%
416 Wyoming Statewide 1,000 290,000 0.34%
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Source: Reproduced from Robert E. Scott, Currency Manipulation and the 896,600 U.S. Jobs Lost Due to the U.S.-Japan Trade Deficit, Economic Policy Institute Briefing Paper #387, February 4, 2015. For a more detailed explanation of data sources and computations, see the appendix of this paper.

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This map shows trade-related employment changes by congressional district for the 113th Congress (elected in 2012), using new congressional district boundaries from the 2010 Census. The map is interactive, and contains additional data on job losses due to the U.S. trade deficit with Japan.

Negotiations on the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) are nearing a conclusion. In addition to its trade deficit with Japan, the United States has a large and growing trade deficit with the 10 other countries in the TPP, many of which are well-known currency manipulators. Simply put, the United States should not sign a trade and investment deal with these countries that does not include strong prohibitions on currency manipulation.


See related work on Trade deficit | Trade and Globalization | Trans-Pacific Partnership

See more work by Robert E. Scott