Economic Indicators Jobs and unemployment

Every month, the Bureau of Labor Statistics releases a report on the employment situation for the previous month. Their release includes data on job growth, unemployment, and wage growth, which gives us a snapshot of the health of the economy and whether it’s working for ordinary Americans.

Key numbers • June

11.1% National unemployment rate
4,800,000 Net jobs in June
73.5% Share of prime working-age population with a job
5.04% Average nominal wage growth since June 2019

June

Jobs report: Two months of gains, but a huge jobs deficit remains, and deepening pain is on the horizon: Congress needs to act

Today’s jobs report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics shows two months in a row of payroll employment gains, an increase in jobs of 4.8 million in June on top of 2.7 million in May. But, because so many jobs were lost in March and April, we are still 14.7 million jobs below where we were in February, before the pandemic spread. Additionally, today’s unemployment insurance claims data showed that last week, 2.3 million workers applied for unemployment benefits (1.4 million applied for regular state unemployment insurance, and 0.8 million applied for Pandemic Unemployment Assistance). This is the 15th week in a row that unemployment claims have been more than twice the worst week of the Great Recession.

In June, jobs were added due to many states continuing to lift their stay at home requirements. Job gains occurred primarily in leisure and hospitality, an increase of 2.1 million, a significant share of the overall rise of 4.8 million. Other sectors that saw significant job gains include retail trade, education and health services, other services, manufacturing, and professional and business services. Public-sector employment saw a mild uptick, though that was due to seasonal adjustments, which anticipate a drop off in employment at the end of the school year and mean month-to-month changes are providing distorted information in this sector right now. Since February, state and local government jobs are down 1.5 million. (This is described in more detail below.)

The unemployment rate fell as well, from 13.3% in May to 11.1% in June. At 11.1%, the unemployment rate remains higher than in the worst month of the Great Recession, when it hit 10.0% in 2009. As with May, the employment gains were uneven. The white unemployment rate continued to fall, from a high of 14.2% in April to 12.4% in May and now 10.1% in June. At the same time, the Black unemployment rate went from 16.7% in April to 16.8% in May and saw mild improvement in June, hitting 15.4%.. Among Black men, however, the unemployment rate actually rose between May and June, hitting this recession’s high water mark of 16.3% in June. The Latinx unemployment rate saw some improvements the last couple of months. At 15.3%, Latina workers saw significant improvement—likely with the sharp rise in leisure and hospitality in June—and now have a slightly lower unemployment rate than Black male workers (16.3%).

Even with these mild improvements, a large jobs deficit remains. Payroll employment remains 14.7 million lower than it was in February, and the unemployment rate is 7.6 percentage points higher than it was in February. And, the unemployment rate is undercounting the extent of economic pain. In June, there were 17.8 million workers who were officially unemployed, but there were an additional 2.0 million workers who were temporarily unemployed but who were being misclassified as “employed not at work,” (see questions 11-14 here for more explanation). And 5.0 million who were out of work as a result of the virus were being counted as having dropped out of the labor force. Altogether, that is 24.5 million workers who are either officially unemployed or otherwise out of work as a result of the virus. If all these workers were taken into account, the unemployment rate would be a whopping 15.0%. Further, only about a third of these workers can reasonably expect to be called back to a prior job; the unemployment rate that includes only those who don’t have a reasonable chance of being called back to a prior job was 9.3%. (The methodology for the numbers in this paragraph can be found here).

How do June’s jobs numbers square with June’s unemployment insurance (UI) claims? As mentioned above, the June jobs data show that as of mid-June, there were 24.5 million workers who were either officially unemployed or otherwise out of work as a result of the virus. The unemployment insurance claims data out today show that as of June 13, there were 31.5 million workers claiming unemployment benefits in all programs. Comparing those two figures suggests that more than 100% of people out of work as a result of the virus are claiming unemployment benefits. However, this direct comparison is problematic. For example, some part-time workers are receiving unemployment benefits, but they aren’t counted in the 24.5 million because that figure only includes people who aren’t working. It is also likely that there is some double-counting of benefits claims. But nevertheless, it clear that a large share of people who are out of work as a result of the virus are on unemployment insurance, and that is good news.

Unfortunately, deepening pain is on the horizon. As bad as the labor market is, it’s likely that June is a temporary respite from the storm. Given the increase in coronavirus over the last couple of weeks along with re-shuttering of businesses as well as the pending expiration (on July 25th) of the $600 enhanced weekly unemployment insurance benefits, June’s labor market—as weak as it is—is the best we can expect for a while. With the hit to incomes from the loss of the $600 per week UI benefit and the increasing spread of the coronavirus, economic activity will soften because people don’t have the money to spend and they are afraid to go out.

The reference period for the jobs survey was mid-June, just before COVID-19 cases began to spike. We are already hearing reports of people being laid off for the second time. As mentioned above, unemployment Insurance data since the mid-June reference week continue to show historically high initial claims—2.3 million for the week ending June 27 (including both regular state UI and Pandemic Unemployment Assistance). These are initial claims, less and less likely to be residual claims from pent up demand from the initial weeks of overloaded state unemployment insurance offices.

Further, without massive additional federal aid, austerity is certainly on the horizon for state and local governments, because state and local tax revenues are plummeting. This means losses in public sector services, including cuts to school budgets at a time when schools are already struggling with the increased need for creative options for students. Losses in public-sector employment will affect Black workers more, particularly Black women workers. The slight rise in public sector employment in June was an artificial correction given large drops in employment at periods when employment is typically stable as opposed to end of the year drops which would be captured by the seasonal adjustment. Employment in state and local government is still 1.5 million (or 7.5%) lower than February. The local public sector losses have been concentrated in public K-12 education, which was still below its pre-Great Recession levels before the pandemic hit and is now 0.7 million jobs (or 8.3%) below where it was in February.

Congress needs to act. The personal income data not only show how important unemployment insurance has been in buffering households and the economy, it also shows just how bad things will get when the enhanced unemployment insurance benefits of $600 per week expires. This economic pain is avoidable. Further, Congress needs to protect workers who have to go to work with adequate compensation and a safe work environment. And, Congress needs to provide substantial aid to state and local governments, which is essential to providing necessary services and is key to the recovery.

The data all point to more trouble to come. We are not unambiguously on an upward trajectory. Policymakers would do well to provide safeguards so that workers and their families can heed the advice of health experts without sacrificing their economic well-being.

Charting jobs and unemployment

Monthly change in payroll employment, 2007–2020

Date Change in Employment 
Jan-2007 228
Feb-2007 81
Mar-2007 235
Apr-2007 49
May-2007 151
Jun-2007 76
Jul-2007 -31
Aug-2007 -23
Sep-2007 80
Oct-2007 79
Nov-2007 110
Dec-2007 108
Jan-2008 11
Feb-2008 -79
Mar-2008 -49
Apr-2008 -240
May-2008 -177
Jun-2008 -171
Jul-2008 -196
Aug-2008 -278
Sep-2008 -460
Oct-2008 -481
Nov-2008 -727
Dec-2008 -706
Jan-2009 -784
Feb-2009 -743
Mar-2009 -800
Apr-2009 -695
May-2009 -342
Jun-2009 -467
Jul-2009 -340
Aug-2009 -183
Sep-2009 -241
Oct-2009 -199
Nov-2009 12
Dec-2009 -269
Jan-2010 2
Feb-2010 -92
Mar-2010 181
Apr-2010 231
May-2010 540
Jun-2010 -139
Jul-2010 -84
Aug-2010 -5
Sep-2010 -65
Oct-2010 268
Nov-2010 125
Dec-2010 72
Jan-2011 19
Feb-2011 212
Mar-2011 235
Apr-2011 314
May-2011 101
Jun-2011 236
Jul-2011 60
Aug-2011 126
Sep-2011 233
Oct-2011 204
Nov-2011 132
Dec-2011 202
Jan-2012 354
Feb-2012 262
Mar-2012 240
Apr-2012 82
May-2012 100
Jun-2012 73
Jul-2012 152
Aug-2012 172
Sep-2012 187
Oct-2012 159
Nov-2012 156
Dec-2012 239
Jan-2013 191
Feb-2013 278
Mar-2013 139
Apr-2013 191
May-2013 222
Jun-2013 181
Jul-2013 112
Aug-2013 242
Sep-2013 187
Oct-2013 225
Nov-2013 264
Dec-2013 69
Jan-2014 175
Feb-2014 166
Mar-2014 254
Apr-2014 325
May-2014 218
Jun-2014 326
Jul-2014 232
Aug-2014 188
Sep-2014 309
Oct-2014 252
Nov-2014 291
Dec-2014 268
Jan-2015 191
Feb-2015 271
Mar-2015 71
Apr-2015 284
May-2015 331
Jun-2015 174
Jul-2015 302
Aug-2015 125
Sep-2015 155
Oct-2015 306
Nov-2015 237
Dec-2015 273
Jan-2016 73
Feb-2016 263
Mar-2016 229
Apr-2016 187
May-2016 42
Jun-2016 267
Jul-2016 354
Aug-2016 135
Sep-2016 269
Oct-2016 145
Nov-2016 151
Dec-2016 230
Jan-2017 185
Feb-2017 188
Mar-2017 129
Apr-2017 197
May-2017 155
Jun-2017 216
Jul-2017 215
Aug-2017 184
Sep-2017 18
Oct-2017 267
Nov-2017 225
Dec-2017 130
Jan-2018 121
Feb-2018 406
Mar-2018 176
Apr-2018 137
May-2018 278
Jun-2018 219
Jul-2018 136
Aug-2018 244
Sep-2018 80
Oct-2018 201
Nov-2018 134
Dec-2018 182
Jan-2019 269
Feb-2019 1
Mar-2019 147
Apr-2019 210
May-2019 85
Jun-2019 182
Jul-2019 194
Aug-2019 207
Sep-2019 208
Oct-2019 185
Nov-2019 261
Dec-2019 184
Jan-2020 214
Feb-2020 251
Mar-2020 -1373
Apr-2020 -20787
May-2020 2699
Jun-2020 4800
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Note: Shaded areas denote recessions.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Employment Statistics public data series

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Nominal wage growth spikes from compositional shifts in the COVID-19 economy, 2007–2020

Date All nonfarm employees Production/nonsupervisory workers
Mar-2007 3.39% 4.11%
Apr-2007 3.07% 3.85%
May-2007 3.53% 4.08%
Jun-2007 3.61% 4.19%
Jul-2007 3.25% 4.11%
Aug-2007 3.40% 4.04%
Sep-2007 3.09% 4.09%
Oct-2007 3.03% 3.84%
Nov-2007 3.13% 3.89%
Dec-2007 2.97% 3.81%
Jan-2008 2.91% 3.74%
Feb-2008 2.85% 3.79%
Mar-2008 3.09% 3.83%
Apr-2008 2.79% 3.76%
May-2008 3.02% 3.75%
Jun-2008 2.72% 3.50%
Jul-2008 3.01% 3.67%
Aug-2008 3.33% 3.89%
Sep-2008 3.23% 3.64%
Oct-2008 3.32% 3.81%
Nov-2008 3.60% 3.86%
Dec-2008 3.59% 3.90%
Jan-2009 3.68% 3.78%
Feb-2009 3.43% 3.60%
Mar-2009 3.28% 3.47%
Apr-2009 3.37% 3.35%
May-2009 2.93% 3.06%
Jun-2009 2.83% 2.94%
Jul-2009 2.73% 2.71%
Aug-2009 2.44% 2.70%
Sep-2009 2.49% 2.75%
Oct-2009 2.53% 2.68%
Nov-2009 2.19% 2.68%
Dec-2009 1.91% 2.45%
Jan-2010 2.00% 2.61%
Feb-2010 2.09% 2.55%
Mar-2010 1.77% 2.22%
Apr-2010 1.81% 2.38%
May-2010 1.95% 2.59%
Jun-2010 1.81% 2.48%
Jul-2010 1.85% 2.42%
Aug-2010 1.75% 2.36%
Sep-2010 1.84% 2.19%
Oct-2010 1.93% 2.45%
Nov-2010 1.65% 2.18%
Dec-2010 1.79% 2.07%
Jan-2011 1.96% 2.33%
Feb-2011 1.87% 2.12%
Mar-2011 1.87% 2.12%
Apr-2011 1.91% 2.11%
May-2011 2.04% 2.10%
Jun-2011 2.13% 2.05%
Jul-2011 2.26% 2.26%
Aug-2011 1.99% 1.88%
Sep-2011 1.94% 1.94%
Oct-2011 2.07% 1.88%
Nov-2011 1.98% 1.82%
Dec-2011 1.98% 1.77%
Jan-2012 1.71% 1.40%
Feb-2012 1.75% 1.45%
Mar-2012 2.14% 1.71%
Apr-2012 2.05% 1.65%
May-2012 1.74% 1.39%
Jun-2012 1.96% 1.60%
Jul-2012 1.77% 1.39%
Aug-2012 1.82% 1.39%
Sep-2012 1.99% 1.54%
Oct-2012 1.51% 1.18%
Nov-2012 1.94% 1.43%
Dec-2012 2.24% 1.74%
Jan-2013 2.24% 1.79%
Feb-2013 2.15% 2.04%
Mar-2013 1.93% 1.88%
Apr-2013 2.05% 1.83%
May-2013 2.14% 1.88%
Jun-2013 2.17% 2.03%
Jul-2013 2.00% 2.03%
Aug-2013 2.30% 2.18%
Sep-2013 2.08% 2.28%
Oct-2013 2.25% 2.32%
Nov-2013 2.24% 2.37%
Dec-2013 1.85% 2.21%
Jan-2014 1.89% 2.26%
Feb-2014 2.31% 2.55%
Mar-2014 2.10% 2.45%
Apr-2014 1.97% 2.35%
May-2014 2.13% 2.44%
Jun-2014 1.96% 2.24%
Jul-2014 2.09% 2.33%
Aug-2014 2.16% 2.48%
Sep-2014 2.08% 2.17%
Oct-2014 2.03% 2.22%
Nov-2014 2.03% 2.22%
Dec-2014 1.99% 1.77%
Jan-2015 2.15% 2.01%
Feb-2015 1.89% 1.46%
Mar-2015 2.18% 1.85%
Apr-2015 2.26% 1.95%
May-2015 2.30% 2.19%
Jun-2015 2.21% 2.14%
Jul-2015 2.12% 2.04%
Aug-2015 2.24% 1.98%
Sep-2015 2.24% 2.13%
Oct-2015 2.48% 2.37%
Nov-2015 2.39% 2.12%
Dec-2015 2.52% 2.61%
Jan-2016 2.55% 2.45%
Feb-2016 2.42% 2.60%
Mar-2016 2.46% 2.49%
Apr-2016 2.57% 2.58%
May-2016 2.48% 2.29%
Jun-2016 2.60% 2.48%
Jul-2016 2.80% 2.62%
Aug-2016 2.47% 2.51%
Sep-2016 2.63% 2.51%
Oct-2016 2.74% 2.41%
Nov-2016 2.65% 2.45%
Dec-2016 2.65% 2.45%
Jan-2017 2.52% 2.35%
Feb-2017 2.76% 2.44%
Mar-2017 2.59% 2.24%
Apr-2017 2.51% 2.24%
May-2017 2.46% 2.33%
Jun-2017 2.50% 2.32%
Jul-2017 2.57% 2.32%
Aug-2017 2.57% 2.31%
Sep-2017 2.87% 2.59%
Oct-2017 2.32% 2.21%
Nov-2017 2.47% 2.35%
Dec-2017 2.70% 2.48%
Jan-2018 2.73% 2.52%
Feb-2018 2.57% 2.47%
Mar-2018 2.80% 2.79%
Apr-2018 2.83% 2.83%
May-2018 2.94% 2.91%
Jun-2018 2.93% 2.91%
Jul-2018 2.85% 2.85%
Aug-2018 3.18% 3.08%
Sep-2018 3.02% 2.97%
Oct-2018 3.32% 3.25%
Nov-2018 3.35% 3.46%
Dec-2018 3.38% 3.54%
Jan-2019 3.26% 3.35%
Feb-2019 3.51% 3.53%
Mar-2019 3.43% 3.51%
Apr-2019 3.34% 3.46%
May-2019 3.30% 3.58%
Jun-2019 3.40% 3.53%
Jul-2019 3.47% 3.65%
Aug-2019 3.45% 3.73%
Sep-2019 3.11% 3.67%
Oct-2019 3.22% 3.76%
Nov-2019 3.28% 3.52%
Dec-2019 3.01% 3.25%
Jan-2020 3.08% 3.33%
Feb-2020 3.00% 3.32%
Mar-2020 3.35% 3.52%
Apr-2020 7.98% 7.67%
May-2020 6.64% 6.62%
Jun-2020 5.04% 5.41%

 

ChartData Download data

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Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Employment Statistics public data series

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Employment-to-population ratio of workers ages 25–54, 1989–2020

date Employment to population ratio
Jan-1989 80
Feb-1989 79.9
Mar-1989 79.9
Apr-1989 79.8
May-1989 79.8
Jun-1989 79.8
Jul-1989 79.8
Aug-1989 79.9
Sep-1989 80
Oct-1989 79.9
Nov-1989 80.2
Dec-1989 80.1
Jan-1990 80.2
Feb-1990 80.2
Mar-1990 80.1
Apr-1990 79.9
May-1990 79.9
Jun-1990 79.8
Jul-1990 79.6
Aug-1990 79.5
Sep-1990 79.4
Oct-1990 79.4
Nov-1990 79.2
Dec-1990 79
Jan-1991 78.9
Feb-1991 78.9
Mar-1991 78.7
Apr-1991 79
May-1991 78.6
Jun-1991 78.7
Jul-1991 78.6
Aug-1991 78.5
Sep-1991 78.6
Oct-1991 78.5
Nov-1991 78.4
Dec-1991 78.3
Jan-1992 78.4
Feb-1992 78.2
Mar-1992 78.2
Apr-1992 78.4
May-1992 78.4
Jun-1992 78.5
Jul-1992 78.4
Aug-1992 78.4
Sep-1992 78.3
Oct-1992 78.2
Nov-1992 78.2
Dec-1992 78.2
Jan-1993 78.2
Feb-1993 78.1
Mar-1993 78.2
Apr-1993 78.2
May-1993 78.5
Jun-1993 78.6
Jul-1993 78.6
Aug-1993 78.8
Sep-1993 78.6
Oct-1993 78.7
Nov-1993 79
Dec-1993 79
Jan-1994 78.9
Feb-1994 78.9
Mar-1994 78.9
Apr-1994 79
May-1994 79.2
Jun-1994 78.8
Jul-1994 79.1
Aug-1994 79.2
Sep-1994 79.6
Oct-1994 79.6
Nov-1994 79.8
Dec-1994 79.8
Jan-1995 79.7
Feb-1995 80
Mar-1995 79.9
Apr-1995 79.8
May-1995 79.7
Jun-1995 79.5
Jul-1995 79.7
Aug-1995 79.6
Sep-1995 79.8
Oct-1995 79.8
Nov-1995 79.7
Dec-1995 79.7
Jan-1996 79.8
Feb-1996 79.9
Mar-1996 79.9
Apr-1996 79.9
May-1996 80
Jun-1996 80.1
Jul-1996 80.4
Aug-1996 80.5
Sep-1996 80.4
Oct-1996 80.6
Nov-1996 80.5
Dec-1996 80.5
Jan-1997 80.5
Feb-1997 80.4
Mar-1997 80.6
Apr-1997 80.7
May-1997 80.6
Jun-1997 80.9
Jul-1997 81.1
Aug-1997 81.3
Sep-1997 81.1
Oct-1997 81.1
Nov-1997 81
Dec-1997 81
Jan-1998 81
Feb-1998 81
Mar-1998 81
Apr-1998 81.1
May-1998 81
Jun-1998 81
Jul-1998 81.1
Aug-1998 81.2
Sep-1998 81.3
Oct-1998 81.1
Nov-1998 81.2
Dec-1998 81.3
Jan-1999 81.8
Feb-1999 81.5
Mar-1999 81.3
Apr-1999 81.3
May-1999 81.4
Jun-1999 81.4
Jul-1999 81.2
Aug-1999 81.3
Sep-1999 81.3
Oct-1999 81.5
Nov-1999 81.6
Dec-1999 81.5
Jan-2000 81.8
Feb-2000 81.8
Mar-2000 81.7
Apr-2000 81.9
May-2000 81.5
Jun-2000 81.5
Jul-2000 81.3
Aug-2000 81.1
Sep-2000 81.1
Oct-2000 81.1
Nov-2000 81.3
Dec-2000 81.4
Jan-2001 81.4
Feb-2001 81.3
Mar-2001 81.3
Apr-2001 80.9
May-2001 80.8
Jun-2001 80.6
Jul-2001 80.5
Aug-2001 80.2
Sep-2001 80.2
Oct-2001 79.9
Nov-2001 79.7
Dec-2001 79.8
Jan-2002 79.6
Feb-2002 79.8
Mar-2002 79.6
Apr-2002 79.5
May-2002 79.4
Jun-2002 79.2
Jul-2002 79.1
Aug-2002 79.3
Sep-2002 79.4
Oct-2002 79.2
Nov-2002 78.8
Dec-2002 79
Jan-2003 78.9
Feb-2003 78.9
Mar-2003 79
Apr-2003 79.1
May-2003 78.9
Jun-2003 78.9
Jul-2003 78.8
Aug-2003 78.7
Sep-2003 78.6
Oct-2003 78.6
Nov-2003 78.7
Dec-2003 78.8
Jan-2004 78.9
Feb-2004 78.8
Mar-2004 78.7
Apr-2004 78.9
May-2004 79
Jun-2004 79.1
Jul-2004 79.2
Aug-2004 79
Sep-2004 79
Oct-2004 79
Nov-2004 79.1
Dec-2004 78.9
Jan-2005 79.2
Feb-2005 79.2
Mar-2005 79.2
Apr-2005 79.4
May-2005 79.5
Jun-2005 79.2
Jul-2005 79.4
Aug-2005 79.6
Sep-2005 79.4
Oct-2005 79.3
Nov-2005 79.2
Dec-2005 79.3
Jan-2006 79.6
Feb-2006 79.7
Mar-2006 79.8
Apr-2006 79.6
May-2006 79.7
Jun-2006 79.8
Jul-2006 79.8
Aug-2006 79.8
Sep-2006 79.9
Oct-2006 80.1
Nov-2006 80
Dec-2006 80.1
Jan-2007 80.3
Feb-2007 80.1
Mar-2007 80.2
Apr-2007 80
May-2007 80
Jun-2007 79.9
Jul-2007 79.8
Aug-2007 79.8
Sep-2007 79.7
Oct-2007 79.6
Nov-2007 79.7
Dec-2007 79.7
Jan-2008 80
Feb-2008 79.9
Mar-2008 79.8
Apr-2008 79.6
May-2008 79.5
Jun-2008 79.4
Jul-2008 79.2
Aug-2008 78.8
Sep-2008 78.8
Oct-2008 78.4
Nov-2008 78.1
Dec-2008 77.6
Jan-2009 77
Feb-2009 76.7
Mar-2009 76.2
Apr-2009 76.2
May-2009 75.9
Jun-2009 75.9
Jul-2009 75.8
Aug-2009 75.6
Sep-2009 75.1
Oct-2009 75
Nov-2009 75.2
Dec-2009 74.8
Jan-2010 75.1
Feb-2010 75.1
Mar-2010 75.1
Apr-2010 75.4
May-2010 75.1
Jun-2010 75.2
Jul-2010 75.1
Aug-2010 75
Sep-2010 75.1
Oct-2010 75
Nov-2010 74.8
Dec-2010 75
Jan-2011 75.2
Feb-2011 75.1
Mar-2011 75.3
Apr-2011 75.1
May-2011 75.2
Jun-2011 75
Jul-2011 75
Aug-2011 75.1
Sep-2011 74.9
Oct-2011 74.9
Nov-2011 75.3
Dec-2011 75.4
Jan-2012 75.5
Feb-2012 75.5
Mar-2012 75.7
Apr-2012 75.7
May-2012 75.7
Jun-2012 75.6
Jul-2012 75.6
Aug-2012 75.7
Sep-2012 76
Oct-2012 76.1
Nov-2012 75.8
Dec-2012 76
Jan-2013 75.6
Feb-2013 75.8
Mar-2013 75.8
Apr-2013 75.8
May-2013 76
Jun-2013 75.9
Jul-2013 76
Aug-2013 76
Sep-2013 76
Oct-2013 75.6
Nov-2013 76.1
Dec-2013 76.1
Jan-2014 76.4
Feb-2014 76.4
Mar-2014 76.5
Apr-2014 76.5
May-2014 76.4
Jun-2014 76.9
Jul-2014 76.7
Aug-2014 76.9
Sep-2014 76.8
Oct-2014 76.9
Nov-2014 76.9
Dec-2014 77.1
Jan-2015 77.1
Feb-2015 77.2
Mar-2015 77.1
Apr-2015 77.2
May-2015 77.2
Jun-2015 77.4
Jul-2015 77.1
Aug-2015 77.3
Sep-2015 77.2
Oct-2015 77.2
Nov-2015 77.4
Dec-2015 77.4
Jan-2016 77.7
Feb-2016 77.8
Mar-2016 77.9
Apr-2016 77.8
May-2016 77.8
Jun-2016 77.9
Jul-2016 78
Aug-2016 77.9
Sep-2016 78
Oct-2016 78.2
Nov-2016 78.1
Dec-2016 78.1
Jan-2017 78.2
Feb-2017 78.3
Mar-2017 78.5
Apr-2017 78.6
May-2017 78.5
Jun-2017 78.6
Jul-2017 78.7
Aug-2017 78.5
Sep-2017 78.9
Oct-2017 78.8
Nov-2017 78.9
Dec-2017 79
Jan-2018 79
Feb-2018 79.3
Mar-2018 79.2
Apr-2018 79.2
May-2018 79.3
Jun-2018 79.4
Jul-2018 79.5
Aug-2018 79.4
Sep-2018 79.3
Oct-2018 79.7
Nov-2018 79.6
Dec-2018 79.6
Jan-2019 79.8
Feb-2019 79.9
Mar-2019 79.8
Apr-2019 79.7
May-2019 79.7
Jun-2019 79.8
Jul-2019 79.5
Aug-2019 80.1
Sep-2019 80.1
Oct-2019 80.3
Nov-2019 80.3
Dec-2019 80.4
Jan-2020 80.6
Feb-2020 80.5
Mar-2020 79.6
Apr-2020 69.7
May-2020 71.4
Jun-2020 73.5
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Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Current Population Survey public data

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Labor force participation rate and employment-to-population ratio of workers ages 25–54, by gender, 1989–2020

Date Labor force participation rate, men Labor force participation rate, women Employment-to-population ratio, men Employment-to-population ratio, women
Jan-1989 89.9 70.5 93.8 73.6
Feb-1989 89.8 70.4 93.7 73.5
Mar-1989 89.9 70.2 93.7 73.4
Apr-1989 89.7 70.3 93.7 73.5
May-1989 89.8 70.1 93.5 73.4
Jun-1989 90 70.1 93.5 73.3
Jul-1989 89.9 70 93.6 73.4
Aug-1989 90 70.2 93.5 73.5
Sep-1989 89.7 70.7 93.6 74
Oct-1989 89.8 70.5 93.7 73.8
Nov-1989 89.9 70.8 93.9 74.1
Dec-1989 90 70.7 93.8 74.1
Jan-1990 89.9 70.9 93.9 74.1
Feb-1990 90.1 70.8 94 74
Mar-1990 89.8 70.8 93.6 74
Apr-1990 89.4 70.7 93.5 73.9
May-1990 89.3 70.8 93.3 74.1
Jun-1990 89.3 70.6 93.3 73.9
Jul-1990 89 70.6 93.2 74
Aug-1990 88.9 70.5 93.3 74
Sep-1990 88.7 70.5 93.1 74
Oct-1990 88.6 70.4 93.2 73.9
Nov-1990 88.5 70.2 93.4 73.9
Dec-1990 88.1 70.1 93.1 73.9
Jan-1991 88.2 69.9 93.2 73.7
Feb-1991 88 70.1 93.4 73.9
Mar-1991 87.7 70 93.3 74
Apr-1991 87.9 70.3 93.4 74.3
May-1991 87.4 70.1 93 74.1
Jun-1991 87.5 70.2 93.1 74.2
Jul-1991 87.5 70.1 93 73.9
Aug-1991 87.4 70 92.9 74.1
Sep-1991 87.5 70.1 93.1 74.1
Oct-1991 87.2 70 92.9 74.2
Nov-1991 87.1 70 92.9 74.1
Dec-1991 86.9 69.9 92.7 74.1
Jan-1992 86.9 70.1 93 74.4
Feb-1992 86.6 70 92.8 74.4
Mar-1992 86.8 70 92.9 74.5
Apr-1992 86.9 70.2 93 74.7
May-1992 86.8 70.3 93.2 74.8
Jun-1992 86.9 70.3 93.3 74.9
Jul-1992 86.9 70.2 93.1 74.8
Aug-1992 86.9 70.2 93.2 74.8
Sep-1992 86.8 70.1 93.1 74.5
Oct-1992 86.7 70 93 74.4
Nov-1992 86.6 70.1 92.7 74.6
Dec-1992 86.7 69.9 92.6 74.6
Jan-1993 86.8 69.9 92.6 74.3
Feb-1993 86.7 69.9 92.4 74.2
Mar-1993 86.5 70.3 92.4 74.4
Apr-1993 86.8 69.9 92.5 74.1
May-1993 87 70.2 92.6 74.5
Jun-1993 87.1 70.4 92.8 74.6
Jul-1993 87.1 70.4 92.7 74.6
Aug-1993 87.2 70.6 92.7 74.8
Sep-1993 87.1 70.5 92.5 74.7
Oct-1993 87.1 70.5 92.5 74.8
Nov-1993 87.5 70.7 92.6 74.9
Dec-1993 87.4 71 92.4 75.2
Jan-1994 87.1 71 92.1 75
Feb-1994 86.8 71.3 91.9 75.3
Mar-1994 87 71.1 91.7 75.2
Apr-1994 87.1 71.2 91.7 75.1
May-1994 87.3 71.3 91.6 75.2
Jun-1994 87 70.9 91.4 74.7
Jul-1994 87 71.4 91.5 75.1
Aug-1994 87 71.7 91.4 75.4
Sep-1994 87.4 72.1 91.6 76
Oct-1994 87.5 71.9 91.8 75.5
Nov-1994 87.9 72 91.9 75.6
Dec-1994 88 71.8 92 75.2
Jan-1995 87.9 71.8 92 75.3
Feb-1995 88.1 72.2 92 75.5
Mar-1995 87.9 72.1 91.8 75.5
Apr-1995 87.7 72.2 91.8 75.9
May-1995 87.6 72.1 91.8 75.5
Jun-1995 87.6 71.7 91.6 75.2
Jul-1995 87.5 72.2 91.4 75.7
Aug-1995 87.4 72.1 91.4 75.6
Sep-1995 87.6 72.3 91.5 75.7
Oct-1995 87.6 72.3 91.3 75.8
Nov-1995 87.2 72.6 91.3 76
Dec-1995 87.2 72.4 91.3 75.7
Jan-1996 87.5 72.4 91.5 75.8
Feb-1996 87.7 72.4 91.7 75.7
Mar-1996 87.5 72.6 91.5 75.8
Apr-1996 87.5 72.6 91.6 75.9
May-1996 87.6 72.5 91.6 76
Jun-1996 87.8 72.7 91.6 76
Jul-1996 88.1 72.9 91.8 76.3
Aug-1996 88.4 73 92 76.3
Sep-1996 88.1 73 91.9 76.2
Oct-1996 88.3 73.1 92 76.4
Nov-1996 88.2 73 92 76.5
Dec-1996 88.3 73 91.9 76.6
Jan-1997 88.2 73.2 91.9 76.5
Feb-1997 88.2 72.9 91.9 76.3
Mar-1997 88.2 73.3 91.8 76.6
Apr-1997 88.1 73.5 91.7 76.5
May-1997 88.1 73.3 91.5 76.4
Jun-1997 88.4 73.6 91.8 76.7
Jul-1997 88.6 73.9 91.9 77
Aug-1997 88.7 74.1 92 77.2
Sep-1997 88.6 73.9 91.9 77
Oct-1997 88.6 73.8 91.8 76.8
Nov-1997 88.7 73.6 91.8 76.5
Dec-1997 88.6 73.6 91.8 76.6
Jan-1998 88.8 73.4 91.9 76.4
Feb-1998 88.9 73.4 91.8 76.5
Mar-1998 88.8 73.5 92 76.7
Apr-1998 88.9 73.5 91.8 76.3
May-1998 88.8 73.4 91.7 76.3
Jun-1998 88.7 73.6 91.7 76.4
Jul-1998 88.7 73.8 91.9 76.5
Aug-1998 88.8 73.9 91.7 76.6
Sep-1998 88.8 74 91.7 76.8
Oct-1998 88.8 73.7 91.8 76.7
Nov-1998 89.1 73.7 91.9 76.6
Dec-1998 88.9 74 91.8 76.8
Jan-1999 89.7 74.3 92.5 77
Feb-1999 89.2 74.1 92.2 76.8
Mar-1999 89.2 73.8 91.8 76.5
Apr-1999 89.1 73.8 91.9 76.6
May-1999 88.9 74.1 91.8 76.7
Jun-1999 88.8 74.2 91.6 76.9
Jul-1999 88.8 73.8 91.6 76.6
Aug-1999 88.7 74.1 91.5 76.7
Sep-1999 88.6 74.3 91.4 76.9
Oct-1999 88.7 74.5 91.4 77
Nov-1999 89 74.5 91.6 77.1
Dec-1999 89 74.3 91.6 76.7
Jan-2000 89.5 74.4 92.1 77
Feb-2000 89.4 74.5 92.2 76.9
Mar-2000 89.3 74.5 91.9 77.1
Apr-2000 89.2 74.9 91.7 77.3
May-2000 89 74.4 91.5 77
Jun-2000 89.1 74.2 91.7 76.8
Jul-2000 88.9 73.9 91.5 76.6
Aug-2000 88.9 73.6 91.5 76.3
Sep-2000 88.6 73.9 91.3 76.4
Oct-2000 88.6 73.9 91.2 76.3
Nov-2000 88.8 74.1 91.4 76.5
Dec-2000 88.9 74.1 91.6 76.5
Jan-2001 88.9 74.2 91.7 76.9
Feb-2001 88.8 74.2 91.6 76.8
Mar-2001 88.5 74.3 91.5 76.9
Apr-2001 88.3 73.7 91.4 76.3
May-2001 88.3 73.7 91.4 76.4
Jun-2001 88.1 73.4 91.3 76.2
Jul-2001 87.9 73.4 91.2 76.2
Aug-2001 87.6 73.2 91.1 76.2
Sep-2001 87.6 73.1 91.1 76.2
Oct-2001 87.4 72.7 91.3 76.1
Nov-2001 87 72.6 91 76.2
Dec-2001 87.1 72.6 91.2 76.3
Jan-2002 86.8 72.5 91.1 76.1
Feb-2002 87.1 72.7 91.3 76.4
Mar-2002 87 72.5 91.3 76.1
Apr-2002 86.8 72.5 91.2 76.2
May-2002 86.9 72.2 91.3 76.1
Jun-2002 86.5 72.1 91 75.7
Jul-2002 86.5 71.9 90.9 75.5
Aug-2002 86.8 72.1 91.1 75.7
Sep-2002 86.8 72.2 91.1 75.8
Oct-2002 86.6 72.1 91 75.7
Nov-2002 85.9 71.9 90.6 75.4
Dec-2002 86 72.2 90.6 75.8
Jan-2003 85.6 72.4 90.2 75.8
Feb-2003 85.9 72.1 90.5 75.8
Mar-2003 85.8 72.4 90.4 76.1
Apr-2003 85.9 72.4 90.7 76
May-2003 85.7 72.2 90.6 75.9
Jun-2003 85.8 72.3 90.7 76.1
Jul-2003 85.8 71.9 90.6 75.6
Aug-2003 85.7 72 90.7 75.6
Sep-2003 85.9 71.6 90.7 75.3
Oct-2003 85.9 71.6 90.7 75.3
Nov-2003 86 71.7 90.7 75.2
Dec-2003 86.4 71.4 90.7 75.1
Jan-2004 86.4 71.6 90.7 75.2
Feb-2004 86.2 71.7 90.4 75.2
Mar-2004 86 71.8 90.2 75.5
Apr-2004 86.2 71.8 90.3 75.4
May-2004 86.3 71.9 90.5 75.3
Jun-2004 86.5 71.9 90.5 75.5
Jul-2004 86.7 71.9 90.7 75.4
Aug-2004 86.5 71.8 90.5 75.1
Sep-2004 86.4 71.9 90.4 75.2
Oct-2004 86.3 71.9 90.2 75.1
Nov-2004 86.5 72 90.4 75.2
Dec-2004 86.2 71.8 90.3 75.1
Jan-2005 86.5 72 90.3 75.3
Feb-2005 86.7 71.9 90.5 75.3
Mar-2005 86.8 71.8 90.5 75
Apr-2005 87 72 90.5 75.2
May-2005 87.1 72.1 90.7 75.3
Jun-2005 87 71.7 90.4 75
Jul-2005 87 71.9 90.5 75.3
Aug-2005 87.4 72.1 90.9 75.2
Sep-2005 87 72.1 90.6 75.4
Oct-2005 87 71.9 90.4 75.2
Nov-2005 86.8 71.9 90.3 75.3
Dec-2005 86.7 72.1 90.2 75.4
Jan-2006 87.2 72.2 90.4 75.3
Feb-2006 87.1 72.4 90.6 75.5
Mar-2006 87.4 72.3 90.9 75.4
Apr-2006 87.2 72.1 90.6 75.3
May-2006 87.2 72.3 90.6 75.3
Jun-2006 87.2 72.5 90.5 75.4
Jul-2006 87.1 72.7 90.4 75.7
Aug-2006 87.1 72.6 90.5 75.6
Sep-2006 87.4 72.5 90.4 75.5
Oct-2006 87.4 72.9 90.4 75.6
Nov-2006 87.5 72.7 90.7 75.5
Dec-2006 87.7 72.7 90.9 75.5
Jan-2007 88 72.8 91.5 75.6
Feb-2007 87.9 72.6 91.4 75.3
Mar-2007 88 72.7 91.2 75.3
Apr-2007 87.9 72.2 91.1 75
May-2007 87.7 72.5 90.9 75.3
Jun-2007 87.5 72.5 90.7 75.3
Jul-2007 87.3 72.4 90.6 75.4
Aug-2007 87.2 72.6 90.5 75.5
Sep-2007 87.1 72.5 90.4 75.4
Oct-2007 86.9 72.4 90.3 75.3
Nov-2007 87.2 72.5 90.6 75.5
Dec-2007 87.2 72.4 90.9 75.5
Jan-2008 87.4 72.7 91.1 75.7
Feb-2008 87.4 72.6 91 75.5
Mar-2008 87.1 72.6 90.9 75.8
Apr-2008 86.7 72.7 90.6 75.8
May-2008 86.5 72.6 90.5 75.9
Jun-2008 86.3 72.6 90.5 76
Jul-2008 86.2 72.4 90.7 75.7
Aug-2008 85.8 72.1 90.5 76
Sep-2008 85.4 72.3 90.5 75.8
Oct-2008 85.2 71.9 90.4 75.8
Nov-2008 84.7 71.7 90.3 75.9
Dec-2008 83.7 71.6 89.9 75.9
Jan-2009 83.1 71.1 90 75.8
Feb-2009 82.5 71 89.8 76
Mar-2009 82 70.6 89.7 75.7
Apr-2009 81.8 70.7 89.9 75.9
May-2009 81.5 70.4 90.1 75.8
Jun-2009 81.5 70.4 90 75.9
Jul-2009 81.3 70.4 89.8 75.8
Aug-2009 81.2 70 90.1 75.6
Sep-2009 80.8 69.5 89.8 75.3
Oct-2009 80.8 69.4 89.8 75.3
Nov-2009 80.7 69.8 89.6 75.4
Dec-2009 80.4 69.2 88.9 75.2
Jan-2010 80.7 69.8 89.2 75.6
Feb-2010 80.6 69.7 89.2 75.5
Mar-2010 80.8 69.5 89.5 75.5
Apr-2010 81.3 69.6 89.7 75.6
May-2010 81.1 69.3 89.5 75.2
Jun-2010 81.1 69.5 89.5 75.1
Jul-2010 81.1 69.1 89.2 74.8
Aug-2010 81.2 69 89.3 74.9
Sep-2010 81.2 69.1 89.3 74.9
Oct-2010 81.1 69 88.9 74.9
Nov-2010 80.7 69.1 88.9 75.3
Dec-2010 80.8 69.4 88.6 75.2
Jan-2011 81.2 69.3 88.6 74.9
Feb-2011 81.4 69 88.7 74.7
Mar-2011 81.4 69.3 88.8 74.9
Apr-2011 81.2 69.1 88.7 74.9
May-2011 81.6 68.9 89 74.6
Jun-2011 81.3 68.8 88.9 74.6
Jul-2011 81.1 69 88.6 74.5
Aug-2011 81.4 68.9 88.7 74.7
Sep-2011 81.3 68.7 88.6 74.6
Oct-2011 81.1 68.9 88.4 74.4
Nov-2011 81.9 68.8 88.7 74.4
Dec-2011 82.1 68.9 88.7 74.6
Jan-2012 82.5 68.9 88.8 74.5
Feb-2012 82.4 68.9 88.7 74.5
Mar-2012 82.5 69.2 88.9 74.5
Apr-2012 82.5 69.1 88.7 74.4
May-2012 82.5 69.2 88.6 74.5
Jun-2012 82.6 69 88.9 74.4
Jul-2012 82.4 69.1 88.6 74.5
Aug-2012 82.4 69.2 88.6 74.5
Sep-2012 82.7 69.5 88.6 74.6
Oct-2012 82.9 69.6 88.8 74.7
Nov-2012 82.5 69.4 88.4 74.3
Dec-2012 82.8 69.4 88.6 74.6
Jan-2013 82.6 68.9 88.4 74
Feb-2013 82.8 69 88.5 73.9
Mar-2013 82.8 69 88.3 73.9
Apr-2013 82.8 69.1 88.6 73.7
May-2013 83 69.3 88.6 74
Jun-2013 82.9 69.2 88.6 74
Jul-2013 82.9 69.4 88.5 74.1
Aug-2013 82.6 69.6 88.3 74
Sep-2013 82.6 69.6 88.4 73.9
Oct-2013 82.4 69 88 73.5
Nov-2013 83 69.3 88.6 73.8
Dec-2013 83 69.5 88.1 73.8
Jan-2014 83.2 69.8 88.2 73.9
Feb-2014 83 70.1 88.1 74.3
Mar-2014 83.5 69.8 88.3 74.2
Apr-2014 83.2 69.9 87.9 74
May-2014 83.3 69.8 88 73.8
Jun-2014 83.8 70.2 88.3 74
Jul-2014 83.8 69.8 88.3 73.7
Aug-2014 83.9 70.1 88.5 74
Sep-2014 84.1 69.8 88.1 73.7
Oct-2014 84 70.1 88.1 73.9
Nov-2014 83.9 70.3 88.1 73.9
Dec-2014 84.2 70.3 88.2 73.8
Jan-2015 84.3 70.2 88.5 73.8
Feb-2015 84.3 70.3 88.4 73.6
Mar-2015 84.5 70 88.5 73.4
Apr-2015 84.4 70.2 88.4 73.8
May-2015 84.3 70.4 88.3 74.1
Jun-2015 84.5 70.5 88.3 73.8
Jul-2015 84.4 70.1 88.1 73.5
Aug-2015 84.6 70.2 88.2 73.5
Sep-2015 84.6 70.2 88.2 73.3
Oct-2015 84.4 70.3 88.2 73.6
Nov-2015 84.4 70.7 88.1 73.9
Dec-2015 84.5 70.6 88.2 73.9
Jan-2016 84.9 70.8 88.4 74.1
Feb-2016 84.9 70.9 88.5 74
Mar-2016 85.1 71 88.7 74.3
Apr-2016 84.8 70.9 88.5 74.2
May-2016 84.9 71 88.4 74.1
Jun-2016 85.1 71 88.7 74.2
Jul-2016 84.9 71.3 88.5 74.2
Aug-2016 84.9 71.1 88.4 74.4
Sep-2016 84.9 71.3 88.7 74.6
Oct-2016 85 71.5 88.6 74.7
Nov-2016 85 71.3 88.5 74.4
Dec-2016 85.1 71.4 88.5 74.5
Jan-2017 85.3 71.4 88.8 74.4
Feb-2017 85.1 71.7 88.6 74.7
Mar-2017 85.1 72 88.5 74.9
Apr-2017 85.4 72 88.5 75.2
May-2017 85.2 71.9 88.5 75
Jun-2017 85.3 72.2 88.6 75
Jul-2017 85.3 72.3 88.6 75.2
Aug-2017 85.1 72.1 88.4 75
Sep-2017 85.6 72.4 88.7 75.2
Oct-2017 85.7 72.2 88.6 74.8
Nov-2017 85.6 72.5 88.5 75.2
Dec-2017 86.1 72.2 89 74.9
Jan-2018 85.9 72.2 89 74.8
Feb-2018 86.4 72.4 89.3 75.2
Mar-2018 86.1 72.5 89.1 75.1
Apr-2018 86.2 72.3 89.2 74.9
May-2018 86.3 72.5 89.1 74.9
Jun-2018 86.1 72.9 89 75.5
Jul-2018 86.2 73 88.8 75.6
Aug-2018 86 72.9 88.7 75.4
Sep-2018 86 72.9 88.7 75.2
Oct-2018 86.2 73.4 89 75.7
Nov-2018 86.3 73.1 89 75.5
Dec-2018 86.1 73.3 89 75.7
Jan-2019 86.4 73.4 89.4 75.9
Feb-2019 86.5 73.4 89.4 75.8
Mar-2019 86.7 73.2 89.5 75.7
Apr-2019 86.4 73.3 89.1 75.5
May-2019 86.2 73.3 88.8 75.6
Jun-2019 86.1 73.6 88.7 75.9
Jul-2019 86.2 73 88.9 75.4
Aug-2019 86.3 74 89 76.3
Sep-2019 86.4 74 89.1 76.3
Oct-2019 86.5 74.2 89.1 76.6
Nov-2019 86.7 74.1 89.3 76.5
Dec-2019 86.6 74.4 89.2 76.8
Jan-2020 86.6 74.7 89.3 77
Feb-2020 86.5 74.7 89.3 77
Mar-2020 85.9 73.6 89.0 76.4
Apr-2020 76.0 63.5 86.4 73.6
May-2020 77.9 65.0 87.2 74.3
June-2020 79.5 67.7 87.9 75.4

 

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Unemployment rate, 1948–2020

date Unemployment Rate
Jan-1948 3.40%
Feb-1948 3.80%
Mar-1948 4.00%
Apr-1948 3.90%
May-1948 3.50%
Jun-1948 3.60%
Jul-1948 3.60%
Aug-1948 3.90%
Sep-1948 3.80%
Oct-1948 3.70%
Nov-1948 3.80%
Dec-1948 4.00%
Jan-1949 4.30%
Feb-1949 4.70%
Mar-1949 5.00%
Apr-1949 5.30%
May-1949 6.10%
Jun-1949 6.20%
Jul-1949 6.70%
Aug-1949 6.80%
Sep-1949 6.60%
Oct-1949 7.90%
Nov-1949 6.40%
Dec-1949 6.60%
Jan-1950 6.50%
Feb-1950 6.40%
Mar-1950 6.30%
Apr-1950 5.80%
May-1950 5.50%
Jun-1950 5.40%
Jul-1950 5.00%
Aug-1950 4.50%
Sep-1950 4.40%
Oct-1950 4.20%
Nov-1950 4.20%
Dec-1950 4.30%
Jan-1951 3.70%
Feb-1951 3.40%
Mar-1951 3.40%
Apr-1951 3.10%
May-1951 3.00%
Jun-1951 3.20%
Jul-1951 3.10%
Aug-1951 3.10%
Sep-1951 3.30%
Oct-1951 3.50%
Nov-1951 3.50%
Dec-1951 3.10%
Jan-1952 3.20%
Feb-1952 3.10%
Mar-1952 2.90%
Apr-1952 2.90%
May-1952 3.00%
Jun-1952 3.00%
Jul-1952 3.20%
Aug-1952 3.40%
Sep-1952 3.10%
Oct-1952 3.00%
Nov-1952 2.80%
Dec-1952 2.70%
Jan-1953 2.90%
Feb-1953 2.60%
Mar-1953 2.60%
Apr-1953 2.70%
May-1953 2.50%
Jun-1953 2.50%
Jul-1953 2.60%
Aug-1953 2.70%
Sep-1953 2.90%
Oct-1953 3.10%
Nov-1953 3.50%
Dec-1953 4.50%
Jan-1954 4.90%
Feb-1954 5.20%
Mar-1954 5.70%
Apr-1954 5.90%
May-1954 5.90%
Jun-1954 5.60%
Jul-1954 5.80%
Aug-1954 6.00%
Sep-1954 6.10%
Oct-1954 5.70%
Nov-1954 5.30%
Dec-1954 5.00%
Jan-1955 4.90%
Feb-1955 4.70%
Mar-1955 4.60%
Apr-1955 4.70%
May-1955 4.30%
Jun-1955 4.20%
Jul-1955 4.00%
Aug-1955 4.20%
Sep-1955 4.10%
Oct-1955 4.30%
Nov-1955 4.20%
Dec-1955 4.20%
Jan-1956 4.00%
Feb-1956 3.90%
Mar-1956 4.20%
Apr-1956 4.00%
May-1956 4.30%
Jun-1956 4.30%
Jul-1956 4.40%
Aug-1956 4.10%
Sep-1956 3.90%
Oct-1956 3.90%
Nov-1956 4.30%
Dec-1956 4.20%
Jan-1957 4.20%
Feb-1957 3.90%
Mar-1957 3.70%
Apr-1957 3.90%
May-1957 4.10%
Jun-1957 4.30%
Jul-1957 4.20%
Aug-1957 4.10%
Sep-1957 4.40%
Oct-1957 4.50%
Nov-1957 5.10%
Dec-1957 5.20%
Jan-1958 5.80%
Feb-1958 6.40%
Mar-1958 6.70%
Apr-1958 7.40%
May-1958 7.40%
Jun-1958 7.30%
Jul-1958 7.50%
Aug-1958 7.40%
Sep-1958 7.10%
Oct-1958 6.70%
Nov-1958 6.20%
Dec-1958 6.20%
Jan-1959 6.00%
Feb-1959 5.90%
Mar-1959 5.60%
Apr-1959 5.20%
May-1959 5.10%
Jun-1959 5.00%
Jul-1959 5.10%
Aug-1959 5.20%
Sep-1959 5.50%
Oct-1959 5.70%
Nov-1959 5.80%
Dec-1959 5.30%
Jan-1960 5.20%
Feb-1960 4.80%
Mar-1960 5.40%
Apr-1960 5.20%
May-1960 5.10%
Jun-1960 5.40%
Jul-1960 5.50%
Aug-1960 5.60%
Sep-1960 5.50%
Oct-1960 6.10%
Nov-1960 6.10%
Dec-1960 6.60%
Jan-1961 6.60%
Feb-1961 6.90%
Mar-1961 6.90%
Apr-1961 7.00%
May-1961 7.10%
Jun-1961 6.90%
Jul-1961 7.00%
Aug-1961 6.60%
Sep-1961 6.70%
Oct-1961 6.50%
Nov-1961 6.10%
Dec-1961 6.00%
Jan-1962 5.80%
Feb-1962 5.50%
Mar-1962 5.60%
Apr-1962 5.60%
May-1962 5.50%
Jun-1962 5.50%
Jul-1962 5.40%
Aug-1962 5.70%
Sep-1962 5.60%
Oct-1962 5.40%
Nov-1962 5.70%
Dec-1962 5.50%
Jan-1963 5.70%
Feb-1963 5.90%
Mar-1963 5.70%
Apr-1963 5.70%
May-1963 5.90%
Jun-1963 5.60%
Jul-1963 5.60%
Aug-1963 5.40%
Sep-1963 5.50%
Oct-1963 5.50%
Nov-1963 5.70%
Dec-1963 5.50%
Jan-1964 5.60%
Feb-1964 5.40%
Mar-1964 5.40%
Apr-1964 5.30%
May-1964 5.10%
Jun-1964 5.20%
Jul-1964 4.90%
Aug-1964 5.00%
Sep-1964 5.10%
Oct-1964 5.10%
Nov-1964 4.80%
Dec-1964 5.00%
Jan-1965 4.90%
Feb-1965 5.10%
Mar-1965 4.70%
Apr-1965 4.80%
May-1965 4.60%
Jun-1965 4.60%
Jul-1965 4.40%
Aug-1965 4.40%
Sep-1965 4.30%
Oct-1965 4.20%
Nov-1965 4.10%
Dec-1965 4.00%
Jan-1966 4.00%
Feb-1966 3.80%
Mar-1966 3.80%
Apr-1966 3.80%
May-1966 3.90%
Jun-1966 3.80%
Jul-1966 3.80%
Aug-1966 3.80%
Sep-1966 3.70%
Oct-1966 3.70%
Nov-1966 3.60%
Dec-1966 3.80%
Jan-1967 3.90%
Feb-1967 3.80%
Mar-1967 3.80%
Apr-1967 3.80%
May-1967 3.80%
Jun-1967 3.90%
Jul-1967 3.80%
Aug-1967 3.80%
Sep-1967 3.80%
Oct-1967 4.00%
Nov-1967 3.90%
Dec-1967 3.80%
Jan-1968 3.70%
Feb-1968 3.80%
Mar-1968 3.70%
Apr-1968 3.50%
May-1968 3.50%
Jun-1968 3.70%
Jul-1968 3.70%
Aug-1968 3.50%
Sep-1968 3.40%
Oct-1968 3.40%
Nov-1968 3.40%
Dec-1968 3.40%
Jan-1969 3.40%
Feb-1969 3.40%
Mar-1969 3.40%
Apr-1969 3.40%
May-1969 3.40%
Jun-1969 3.50%
Jul-1969 3.50%
Aug-1969 3.50%
Sep-1969 3.70%
Oct-1969 3.70%
Nov-1969 3.50%
Dec-1969 3.50%
Jan-1970 3.90%
Feb-1970 4.20%
Mar-1970 4.40%
Apr-1970 4.60%
May-1970 4.80%
Jun-1970 4.90%
Jul-1970 5.00%
Aug-1970 5.10%
Sep-1970 5.40%
Oct-1970 5.50%
Nov-1970 5.90%
Dec-1970 6.10%
Jan-1971 5.90%
Feb-1971 5.90%
Mar-1971 6.00%
Apr-1971 5.90%
May-1971 5.90%
Jun-1971 5.90%
Jul-1971 6.00%
Aug-1971 6.10%
Sep-1971 6.00%
Oct-1971 5.80%
Nov-1971 6.00%
Dec-1971 6.00%
Jan-1972 5.80%
Feb-1972 5.70%
Mar-1972 5.80%
Apr-1972 5.70%
May-1972 5.70%
Jun-1972 5.70%
Jul-1972 5.60%
Aug-1972 5.60%
Sep-1972 5.50%
Oct-1972 5.60%
Nov-1972 5.30%
Dec-1972 5.20%
Jan-1973 4.90%
Feb-1973 5.00%
Mar-1973 4.90%
Apr-1973 5.00%
May-1973 4.90%
Jun-1973 4.90%
Jul-1973 4.80%
Aug-1973 4.80%
Sep-1973 4.80%
Oct-1973 4.60%
Nov-1973 4.80%
Dec-1973 4.90%
Jan-1974 5.10%
Feb-1974 5.20%
Mar-1974 5.10%
Apr-1974 5.10%
May-1974 5.10%
Jun-1974 5.40%
Jul-1974 5.50%
Aug-1974 5.50%
Sep-1974 5.90%
Oct-1974 6.00%
Nov-1974 6.60%
Dec-1974 7.20%
Jan-1975 8.10%
Feb-1975 8.10%
Mar-1975 8.60%
Apr-1975 8.80%
May-1975 9.00%
Jun-1975 8.80%
Jul-1975 8.60%
Aug-1975 8.40%
Sep-1975 8.40%
Oct-1975 8.40%
Nov-1975 8.30%
Dec-1975 8.20%
Jan-1976 7.90%
Feb-1976 7.70%
Mar-1976 7.60%
Apr-1976 7.70%
May-1976 7.40%
Jun-1976 7.60%
Jul-1976 7.80%
Aug-1976 7.80%
Sep-1976 7.60%
Oct-1976 7.70%
Nov-1976 7.80%
Dec-1976 7.80%
Jan-1977 7.50%
Feb-1977 7.60%
Mar-1977 7.40%
Apr-1977 7.20%
May-1977 7.00%
Jun-1977 7.20%
Jul-1977 6.90%
Aug-1977 7.00%
Sep-1977 6.80%
Oct-1977 6.80%
Nov-1977 6.80%
Dec-1977 6.40%
Jan-1978 6.40%
Feb-1978 6.30%
Mar-1978 6.30%
Apr-1978 6.10%
May-1978 6.00%
Jun-1978 5.90%
Jul-1978 6.20%
Aug-1978 5.90%
Sep-1978 6.00%
Oct-1978 5.80%
Nov-1978 5.90%
Dec-1978 6.00%
Jan-1979 5.90%
Feb-1979 5.90%
Mar-1979 5.80%
Apr-1979 5.80%
May-1979 5.60%
Jun-1979 5.70%
Jul-1979 5.70%
Aug-1979 6.00%
Sep-1979 5.90%
Oct-1979 6.00%
Nov-1979 5.90%
Dec-1979 6.00%
Jan-1980 6.30%
Feb-1980 6.30%
Mar-1980 6.30%
Apr-1980 6.90%
May-1980 7.50%
Jun-1980 7.60%
Jul-1980 7.80%
Aug-1980 7.70%
Sep-1980 7.50%
Oct-1980 7.50%
Nov-1980 7.50%
Dec-1980 7.20%
Jan-1981 7.50%
Feb-1981 7.40%
Mar-1981 7.40%
Apr-1981 7.20%
May-1981 7.50%
Jun-1981 7.50%
Jul-1981 7.20%
Aug-1981 7.40%
Sep-1981 7.60%
Oct-1981 7.90%
Nov-1981 8.30%
Dec-1981 8.50%
Jan-1982 8.60%
Feb-1982 8.90%
Mar-1982 9.00%
Apr-1982 9.30%
May-1982 9.40%
Jun-1982 9.60%
Jul-1982 9.80%
Aug-1982 9.80%
Sep-1982 10.10%
Oct-1982 10.40%
Nov-1982 10.80%
Dec-1982 10.80%
Jan-1983 10.40%
Feb-1983 10.40%
Mar-1983 10.30%
Apr-1983 10.20%
May-1983 10.10%
Jun-1983 10.10%
Jul-1983 9.40%
Aug-1983 9.50%
Sep-1983 9.20%
Oct-1983 8.80%
Nov-1983 8.50%
Dec-1983 8.30%
Jan-1984 8.00%
Feb-1984 7.80%
Mar-1984 7.80%
Apr-1984 7.70%
May-1984 7.40%
Jun-1984 7.20%
Jul-1984 7.50%
Aug-1984 7.50%
Sep-1984 7.30%
Oct-1984 7.40%
Nov-1984 7.20%
Dec-1984 7.30%
Jan-1985 7.30%
Feb-1985 7.20%
Mar-1985 7.20%
Apr-1985 7.30%
May-1985 7.20%
Jun-1985 7.40%
Jul-1985 7.40%
Aug-1985 7.10%
Sep-1985 7.10%
Oct-1985 7.10%
Nov-1985 7.00%
Dec-1985 7.00%
Jan-1986 6.70%
Feb-1986 7.20%
Mar-1986 7.20%
Apr-1986 7.10%
May-1986 7.20%
Jun-1986 7.20%
Jul-1986 7.00%
Aug-1986 6.90%
Sep-1986 7.00%
Oct-1986 7.00%
Nov-1986 6.90%
Dec-1986 6.60%
Jan-1987 6.60%
Feb-1987 6.60%
Mar-1987 6.60%
Apr-1987 6.30%
May-1987 6.30%
Jun-1987 6.20%
Jul-1987 6.10%
Aug-1987 6.00%
Sep-1987 5.90%
Oct-1987 6.00%
Nov-1987 5.80%
Dec-1987 5.70%
Jan-1988 5.70%
Feb-1988 5.70%
Mar-1988 5.70%
Apr-1988 5.40%
May-1988 5.60%
Jun-1988 5.40%
Jul-1988 5.40%
Aug-1988 5.60%
Sep-1988 5.40%
Oct-1988 5.40%
Nov-1988 5.30%
Dec-1988 5.30%
Jan-1989 5.40%
Feb-1989 5.20%
Mar-1989 5.00%
Apr-1989 5.20%
May-1989 5.20%
Jun-1989 5.30%
Jul-1989 5.20%
Aug-1989 5.20%
Sep-1989 5.30%
Oct-1989 5.30%
Nov-1989 5.40%
Dec-1989 5.40%
Jan-1990 5.40%
Feb-1990 5.30%
Mar-1990 5.20%
Apr-1990 5.40%
May-1990 5.40%
Jun-1990 5.20%
Jul-1990 5.50%
Aug-1990 5.70%
Sep-1990 5.90%
Oct-1990 5.90%
Nov-1990 6.20%
Dec-1990 6.30%
Jan-1991 6.40%
Feb-1991 6.60%
Mar-1991 6.80%
Apr-1991 6.70%
May-1991 6.90%
Jun-1991 6.90%
Jul-1991 6.80%
Aug-1991 6.90%
Sep-1991 6.90%
Oct-1991 7.00%
Nov-1991 7.00%
Dec-1991 7.30%
Jan-1992 7.30%
Feb-1992 7.40%
Mar-1992 7.40%
Apr-1992 7.40%
May-1992 7.60%
Jun-1992 7.80%
Jul-1992 7.70%
Aug-1992 7.60%
Sep-1992 7.60%
Oct-1992 7.30%
Nov-1992 7.40%
Dec-1992 7.40%
Jan-1993 7.30%
Feb-1993 7.10%
Mar-1993 7.00%
Apr-1993 7.10%
May-1993 7.10%
Jun-1993 7.00%
Jul-1993 6.90%
Aug-1993 6.80%
Sep-1993 6.70%
Oct-1993 6.80%
Nov-1993 6.60%
Dec-1993 6.50%
Jan-1994 6.60%
Feb-1994 6.60%
Mar-1994 6.50%
Apr-1994 6.40%
May-1994 6.10%
Jun-1994 6.10%
Jul-1994 6.10%
Aug-1994 6.00%
Sep-1994 5.90%
Oct-1994 5.80%
Nov-1994 5.60%
Dec-1994 5.50%
Jan-1995 5.60%
Feb-1995 5.40%
Mar-1995 5.40%
Apr-1995 5.80%
May-1995 5.60%
Jun-1995 5.60%
Jul-1995 5.70%
Aug-1995 5.70%
Sep-1995 5.60%
Oct-1995 5.50%
Nov-1995 5.60%
Dec-1995 5.60%
Jan-1996 5.60%
Feb-1996 5.50%
Mar-1996 5.50%
Apr-1996 5.60%
May-1996 5.60%
Jun-1996 5.30%
Jul-1996 5.50%
Aug-1996 5.10%
Sep-1996 5.20%
Oct-1996 5.20%
Nov-1996 5.40%
Dec-1996 5.40%
Jan-1997 5.30%
Feb-1997 5.20%
Mar-1997 5.20%
Apr-1997 5.10%
May-1997 4.90%
Jun-1997 5.00%
Jul-1997 4.90%
Aug-1997 4.80%
Sep-1997 4.90%
Oct-1997 4.70%
Nov-1997 4.60%
Dec-1997 4.70%
Jan-1998 4.60%
Feb-1998 4.60%
Mar-1998 4.70%
Apr-1998 4.30%
May-1998 4.40%
Jun-1998 4.50%
Jul-1998 4.50%
Aug-1998 4.50%
Sep-1998 4.60%
Oct-1998 4.50%
Nov-1998 4.40%
Dec-1998 4.40%
Jan-1999 4.30%
Feb-1999 4.40%
Mar-1999 4.20%
Apr-1999 4.30%
May-1999 4.20%
Jun-1999 4.30%
Jul-1999 4.30%
Aug-1999 4.20%
Sep-1999 4.20%
Oct-1999 4.10%
Nov-1999 4.10%
Dec-1999 4.00%
Jan-2000 4.00%
Feb-2000 4.10%
Mar-2000 4.00%
Apr-2000 3.80%
May-2000 4.00%
Jun-2000 4.00%
Jul-2000 4.00%
Aug-2000 4.10%
Sep-2000 3.90%
Oct-2000 3.90%
Nov-2000 3.90%
Dec-2000 3.90%
Jan-2001 4.20%
Feb-2001 4.20%
Mar-2001 4.30%
Apr-2001 4.40%
May-2001 4.30%
Jun-2001 4.50%
Jul-2001 4.60%
Aug-2001 4.90%
Sep-2001 5.00%
Oct-2001 5.30%
Nov-2001 5.50%
Dec-2001 5.70%
Jan-2002 5.70%
Feb-2002 5.70%
Mar-2002 5.70%
Apr-2002 5.90%
May-2002 5.80%
Jun-2002 5.80%
Jul-2002 5.80%
Aug-2002 5.70%
Sep-2002 5.70%
Oct-2002 5.70%
Nov-2002 5.90%
Dec-2002 6.00%
Jan-2003 5.80%
Feb-2003 5.90%
Mar-2003 5.90%
Apr-2003 6.00%
May-2003 6.10%
Jun-2003 6.30%
Jul-2003 6.20%
Aug-2003 6.10%
Sep-2003 6.10%
Oct-2003 6.00%
Nov-2003 5.80%
Dec-2003 5.70%
Jan-2004 5.70%
Feb-2004 5.60%
Mar-2004 5.80%
Apr-2004 5.60%
May-2004 5.60%
Jun-2004 5.60%
Jul-2004 5.50%
Aug-2004 5.40%
Sep-2004 5.40%
Oct-2004 5.50%
Nov-2004 5.40%
Dec-2004 5.40%
Jan-2005 5.30%
Feb-2005 5.40%
Mar-2005 5.20%
Apr-2005 5.20%
May-2005 5.10%
Jun-2005 5.00%
Jul-2005 5.00%
Aug-2005 4.90%
Sep-2005 5.00%
Oct-2005 5.00%
Nov-2005 5.00%
Dec-2005 4.90%
Jan-2006 4.70%
Feb-2006 4.80%
Mar-2006 4.70%
Apr-2006 4.70%
May-2006 4.60%
Jun-2006 4.60%
Jul-2006 4.70%
Aug-2006 4.70%
Sep-2006 4.50%
Oct-2006 4.40%
Nov-2006 4.50%
Dec-2006 4.40%
Jan-2007 4.60%
Feb-2007 4.50%
Mar-2007 4.40%
Apr-2007 4.50%
May-2007 4.40%
Jun-2007 4.60%
Jul-2007 4.70%
Aug-2007 4.60%
Sep-2007 4.70%
Oct-2007 4.70%
Nov-2007 4.70%
Dec-2007 5.00%
Jan-2008 5.00%
Feb-2008 4.90%
Mar-2008 5.10%
Apr-2008 5.00%
May-2008 5.40%
Jun-2008 5.60%
Jul-2008 5.80%
Aug-2008 6.10%
Sep-2008 6.10%
Oct-2008 6.50%
Nov-2008 6.80%
Dec-2008 7.30%
Jan-2009 7.80%
Feb-2009 8.30%
Mar-2009 8.70%
Apr-2009 9.00%
May-2009 9.40%
Jun-2009 9.50%
Jul-2009 9.50%
Aug-2009 9.60%
Sep-2009 9.80%
Oct-2009 10.00%
Nov-2009 9.90%
Dec-2009 9.90%
Jan-2010 9.80%
Feb-2010 9.80%
Mar-2010 9.90%
Apr-2010 9.90%
May-2010 9.60%
Jun-2010 9.40%
Jul-2010 9.40%
Aug-2010 9.50%
Sep-2010 9.50%
Oct-2010 9.40%
Nov-2010 9.80%
Dec-2010 9.30%
Jan-2011 9.10%
Feb-2011 9.00%
Mar-2011 9.00%
Apr-2011 9.10%
May-2011 9.00%
Jun-2011 9.10%
Jul-2011 9.00%
Aug-2011 9.00%
Sep-2011 9.00%
Oct-2011 8.80%
Nov-2011 8.60%
Dec-2011 8.50%
Jan-2012 8.30%
Feb-2012 8.30%
Mar-2012 8.20%
Apr-2012 8.20%
May-2012 8.20%
Jun-2012 8.20%
Jul-2012 8.20%
Aug-2012 8.10%
Sep-2012 7.80%
Oct-2012 7.80%
Nov-2012 7.70%
Dec-2012 7.90%
Jan-2013 8.00%
Feb-2013 7.70%
Mar-2013 7.50%
Apr-2013 7.60%
May-2013 7.50%
Jun-2013 7.50%
Jul-2013 7.30%
Aug-2013 7.20%
Sep-2013 7.20%
Oct-2013 7.20%
Nov-2013 6.90%
Dec-2013 6.70%
Jan-2014 6.60%
Feb-2014 6.70%
Mar-2014 6.70%
Apr-2014 6.20%
May-2014 6.30%
Jun-2014 6.10%
Jul-2014 6.20%
Aug-2014 6.10%
Sep-2014 5.90%
Oct-2014 5.70%
Nov-2014 5.80%
Dec-2014 5.60%
Jan-2015 5.70%
Feb-2015 5.50%
Mar-2015 5.40%
Apr-2015 5.40%
May-2015 5.60%
Jun-2015 5.30%
Jul-2015 5.20%
Aug-2015 5.10%
Sep-2015 5.00%
Oct-2015 5.00%
Nov-2015 5.10%
Dec-2015 5.00%
Jan-2016 4.90%
Feb-2016 4.90%
Mar-2016 5.00%
Apr-2016 5.00%
May-2016 4.80%
Jun-2016 4.90%
Jul-2016 4.80%
Aug-2016 4.90%
Sep-2016 5.00%
Oct-2016 4.90%
Nov-2016 4.70%
Dec-2016 4.70%
Jan-2017 4.70%
Feb-2017 4.60%
Mar-2017 4.40%
Apr-2017 4.40%
May-2017 4.40%
Jun-2017 4.30%
Jul-2017 4.30%
Aug-2017 4.40%
Sep-2017 4.20%
Oct-2017 4.10%
Nov-2017 4.20%
Dec-2017 4.10%
Jan-2018 4.10%
Feb-2018 4.10%
Mar-2018 4.00%
Apr-2018 4.00%
May-2018 3.80%
Jun-2018 4.00%
Jul-2018 3.80%
Aug-2018 3.80%
Sep-2018 3.70%
Oct-2018 3.80%
Nov-2018 3.70%
Dec-2018 3.90%
Jan-2019 4.00%
Feb-2019 3.80%
Mar-2019 3.80%
Apr-2019 3.60%
May-2019 3.60%
Jun-2019 3.70%
Jul-2019 3.70%
Aug-2019 3.70%
Sep-2019 3.50%
Oct-2019 3.60%
Nov-2019 3.50%
Dec-2019 3.50%
Jan-2020 3.60%
Feb-2020 3.50%
Mar-2020 4.40%
Apr-2020 14.70%
May-2020 13.30%
Jun-2020 11.1%
ChartData Download data

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Note: Shaded areas denote recessions.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Population Survey

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Unemployment rate of workers age 16 and older by race and ethnicity, 1995–2020

date White Black Hispanic
Jan-1995 4.8 10.3 10.2
Feb-1995 4.7 10.1 9
Mar-1995 4.7 9.7 8.9
Apr-1995 5 10.7 8.9
May-1995 5 10 9.8
Jun-1995 4.9 10.7 9.1
Jul-1995 4.9 10.9 8.8
Aug-1995 4.9 11.1 9.6
Sep-1995 4.9 11.1 9.1
Oct-1995 4.9 10 9.4
Nov-1995 5 9.7 9.5
Dec-1995 4.9 10.2 9.3
Jan-1996 4.9 10.6 9.4
Feb-1996 4.8 10 9.6
Mar-1996 4.8 10.6 9.6
Apr-1996 4.8 10.7 9.6
May-1996 4.9 10.2 9.6
Jun-1996 4.6 10.4 8.8
Jul-1996 4.7 10.6 8.8
Aug-1996 4.4 10.6 8.8
Sep-1996 4.5 10.6 8.2
Oct-1996 4.5 10.7 8
Nov-1996 4.6 10.6 8.5
Dec-1996 4.6 10.5 7.4
Jan-1997 4.5 10.8 8.4
Feb-1997 4.5 10.7 8.2
Mar-1997 4.4 10.5 8.3
Apr-1997 4.3 10.2 8.2
May-1997 4.1 10.3 7.7
Jun-1997 4.2 10.8 7.5
Jul-1997 4.2 9.5 7.9
Aug-1997 4.2 9.4 7.2
Sep-1997 4.2 9.5 7.4
Oct-1997 4.1 9.5 7.8
Nov-1997 3.9 9.5 7
Dec-1997 3.9 10 7.3
Jan-1998 4 9.4 7.1
Feb-1998 3.9 9.3 6.9
Mar-1998 4 9.2 6.9
Apr-1998 3.7 9.1 6.7
May-1998 3.8 8.9 6.9
Jun-1998 3.9 8.8 7.4
Jul-1998 3.8 9.5 7.3
Aug-1998 3.9 8.8 7.4
Sep-1998 3.9 9.1 7.3
Oct-1998 3.9 8.6 7.2
Nov-1998 3.8 8.6 7.1
Dec-1998 3.8 7.7 7.7
Jan-1999 3.8 7.8 6.7
Feb-1999 3.8 8.2 6.7
Mar-1999 3.6 8 5.8
Apr-1999 3.8 7.8 7
May-1999 3.7 7.4 6.7
Jun-1999 3.8 7.7 6.6
Jul-1999 3.7 8.7 6.5
Aug-1999 3.7 7.7 6.5
Sep-1999 3.6 8.5 6.7
Oct-1999 3.5 8.4 6.4
Nov-1999 3.5 8 6
Dec-1999 3.5 7.8 5.8
Jan-2000 3.4 8.2 5.6
Feb-2000 3.6 8.1 5.7
Mar-2000 3.5 7.4 6.1
Apr-2000 3.4 7% 5.5
May-2000 3.5 7.7 5.8
Jun-2000 3.4 7.8 5.6
Jul-2000 3.5 7.7 5.8
Aug-2000 3.6 7.9 5.9
Sep-2000 3.5 7.3 5.8
Oct-2000 3.4% 7.3 5.1
Nov-2000 3.5 7.3 6
Dec-2000 3.5 7.4 5.7
Jan-2001 3.6 8.2 5.8
Feb-2001 3.7 7.7 6.1
Mar-2001 3.7 8.3 6.2
Apr-2001 3.9 8 6.4
May-2001 3.8 7.9 6.3
Jun-2001 4 8.3 6.6
Jul-2001 4 8 6.2
Aug-2001 4.3 9.1 6.5
Sep-2001 4.3 8.9 6.7
Oct-2001 4.7 9.5 7.1
Nov-2001 4.9 9.8 7.3
Dec-2001 5.1 10.1 7.7
Jan-2002 5.1 10 7.8
Feb-2002 5 9.9 7
Mar-2002 5 10.5 7.5
Apr-2002 5.2 10.7 8
May-2002 5.1 10.2 7.1
Jun-2002 5.1 10.5 7.4
Jul-2002 5.2 9.8 7.4
Aug-2002 5.1 9.8 7.5
Sep-2002 5.1 9.7 7.4
Oct-2002 5.1 9.8 7.9
Nov-2002 5.1 10.7 7.8
Dec-2002 5.1 11.3 7.9
Jan-2003 5.2 10.5 7.9
Feb-2003 5.1 10.7 7.7
Mar-2003 5.1 10.3 7.8
Apr-2003 5.3 10.9 7.6
May-2003 5.4 10.9 8
Jun-2003 5.5 11.5 8.3
Jul-2003 5.4 10.9 8
Aug-2003 5.4 10.9 7.7
Sep-2003 5.3 11.1 7.3
Oct-2003 5.1 11.4 7.5
Nov-2003 5.2 10.2 7.4
Dec-2003 5 10.1 6.7
Jan-2004 5 10.4 7.3
Feb-2004 4.9 9.7 7.4
Mar-2004 5.1 10.3 7.6
Apr-2004 5 9.8 7.1
May-2004 4.9 10.1 6.9
Jun-2004 5 10.2 6.6
Jul-2004 4.7 11 6.8
Aug-2004 4.7 10.5 6.8
Sep-2004 4.6 10.3 6.8
Oct-2004 4.6 10.8 6.8
Nov-2004 4.6 10.7 6.7
Dec-2004 4.5 10.7 6.6
Jan-2005 4.5 10.6 6
Feb-2005 4.6 10.9 6.3
Mar-2005 4.5 10.5 5.8
Apr-2005 4.4 10.3 6.4
May-2005 4.4 10.1 6
Jun-2005 4.3 10.2 5.7
Jul-2005 4.2 9.2 5.5
Aug-2005 4.2 9.7 5.8
Sep-2005 4.4 9.4 6.4
Oct-2005 4.4 9.1 6
Nov-2005 4.3 10.6 6.1
Dec-2005 4.2 9.2 6.1
Jan-2006 4.1 8.9 5.5
Feb-2006 4.1 9.5 5.4
Mar-2006 4 9.5 5.2
Apr-2006 4.1 9.4 5.5
May-2006 4.1 8.7 5
Jun-2006 4.1 8.9 5.2
Jul-2006 4.1 9.5 5.2
Aug-2006 4.1 8.8 5.3
Sep-2006 3.9 9 5.5
Oct-2006 3.9 8.4 4.8%
Nov-2006 4 8.5 5.1
Dec-2006 3.9 8.3 5
Jan-2007 4.2 7.9 5.5
Feb-2007 4.1 8 5.1
Mar-2007 3.8 8.4 5
Apr-2007 4 8.3 5.6
May-2007 3.9 8.3 5.8
Jun-2007 4.1 8.5 5.5
Jul-2007 4.2 8.1 5.9
Aug-2007 4.2 7.6 5.5
Sep-2007 4.2 8 5.9
Oct-2007 4.1 8.5 5.7
Nov-2007 4.2 8.5 5.9
Dec-2007 4.4 9 6.3
Jan-2008 4.4 9.1 6.3
Feb-2008 4.4 8.4 6.2
Mar-2008 4.5 9.2 6.9
Apr-2008 4.4 8.6 7.1
May-2008 4.8 9.6 6.9
Jun-2008 5 9.4 7.6
Jul-2008 5.2 10 7.5
Aug-2008 5.4 10.6 8
Sep-2008 5.4 11.3 8
Oct-2008 5.9 11.4 8.8
Nov-2008 6.2 11.5 8.7
Dec-2008 6.7 12.1 9.4
Jan-2009 7.1 12.7 10.1
Feb-2009 7.6 13.7 11.3
Mar-2009 8 13.7 11.7
Apr-2009 8.1 15 11.4
May-2009 8.5 15 12.3
Jun-2009 8.7 14.8 12.1
Jul-2009 8.7 14.8 12.5
Aug-2009 8.9 16.8% 13
Sep-2009 8.9 15.3 12.6
Oct-2009 9.2 15.8 12.8
Nov-2009 9.2% 15.7 12.4
Dec-2009 9 16.1 12.8
Jan-2010 8.8 16.5 12.9
Feb-2010 8.9 16.1 12.7
Mar-2010 8.9 16.8 13%
Apr-2010 9 16.6 12.5
May-2010 8.7 15.5 12
Jun-2010 8.6 15.2 12.3
Jul-2010 8.5 15.6 12.2
Aug-2010 8.6 15.9 12
Sep-2010 8.6 16 12.3
Oct-2010 8.6 15.6 12.3
Nov-2010 8.9 16.2 12.9
Dec-2010 8.5 15.5 12.9
Jan-2011 8.1 15.8 12.3
Feb-2011 8.1 15.5 11.8
Mar-2011 8 15.8 11.6
Apr-2011 8.1 16.5 11.9
May-2011 7.9 16.3 11.6
Jun-2011 8.1 16.2 11.5
Jul-2011 8 15.9 11.2
Aug-2011 7.9 16.4 11.2
Sep-2011 7.9 15.9 11.2
Oct-2011 7.9 14.6 11.3
Nov-2011 7.7 15.6 11.2
Dec-2011 7.5 15.4 11.1
Jan-2012 7.4 13.6 10.7
Feb-2012 7.4 14 10.9
Mar-2012 7.3 14 10.6
Apr-2012 7.4 13.3 10.3
May-2012 7.4 13.5 10.9
Jun-2012 7.3 14.5 10.9
Jul-2012 7.3 14.2 10.2
Aug-2012 7.2 13.8 10.1
Sep-2012 7 13.6 9.7
Oct-2012 6.9 14.1 10
Nov-2012 6.8 13.3 9.9
Dec-2012 6.9 14 9.6
Jan-2013 7.1 13.7 9.7
Feb-2013 6.8 13.8 9.7
Mar-2013 6.7 13 9.3
Apr-2013 6.7 13.3 9
May-2013 6.7 13.4 9
Jun-2013 6.6 14.2 9.1
Jul-2013 6.5 12.6 9.4
Aug-2013 6.4 12.8 9.2
Sep-2013 6.3 13 8.8
Oct-2013 6.3 12.8 9.1
Nov-2013 6.1 12.3 8.7
Dec-2013 5.9 11.9 8.3
Jan-2014 5.7 12.1 8.3
Feb-2014 5.8 11.8 8.2
Mar-2014 5.8 12.1 7.9
Apr-2014 5.3 11.6 7.2
May-2014 5.4 11.4 7.7
Jun-2014 5.3 11 7.8
Jul-2014 5.3 11.6 7.7
Aug-2014 5.3 11.4 7.4
Sep-2014 5.1 11 6.8
Oct-2014 4.9 10.6 6.8
Nov-2014 5 10.9 6.6
Dec-2014 4.7 10.6 6.4
Jan-2015 4.9 10.3 6.7
Feb-2015 4.7 10.1 6.8
Mar-2015 4.8 9.9 6.8
Apr-2015 4.7 9.7 6.8
May-2015 4.8 10.3 6.8
Jun-2015 4.6 9.7 6.7
Jul-2015 4.5 9.1 6.9
Aug-2015 4.4 9.4 6.6
Sep-2015 4.4 9.3 6.2
Oct-2015 4.4 9 6.3
Nov-2015 4.4 9.4 6.4
Dec-2015 4.4 8.5 6.2
Jan-2016 4.2 8.7 5.8
Feb-2016 4.3 8.5 5.4
Mar-2016 4.3 8.9 5.5
Apr-2016 4.4 8.8 6.1
May-2016 4.2 8.2 5.6
Jun-2016 4.3 8.8 5.9
Jul-2016 4.2 8.4 5.5
Aug-2016 4.3 8 5.6
Sep-2016 4.4 8.5 6.4
Oct-2016 4.4 8.4 5.8
Nov-2016 4.2 8.1 5.8
Dec-2016 4.2 7.9 5.9
Jan-2017 4.2 7.5 5.8
Feb-2017 4 7.9 5.5
Mar-2017 3.9 7.9 5
Apr-2017 3.9 7.9 5.1
May-2017 3.8 7.7 5.2
Jun-2017 3.8 7.1 4.9
Jul-2017 3.7 7.4 5.1
Aug-2017 3.8 7.7 5.2
Sep-2017 3.7 7.2 5.1
Oct-2017 3.5 7.4 4.9
Nov-2017 3.7 7.4 4.8
Dec-2017 3.7 6.7 5
Jan-2018 3.5 7.5 5
Feb-2018 3.7 6.7 4.9
Mar-2018 3.6 6.8 5
Apr-2018 3.6 6.4 4.8
May-2018 3.5 5.9 4.9
Jun-2018 3.5 6.5 4.5
Jul-2018 3.3 6.6 4.4
Aug-2018 3.4 6.3 4.7
Sep-2018 3.3 6.2 4.6
Oct-2018 3.3 6.3 4.4
Nov-2018 3.4 6.1 4.5
Dec-2018 3.4 6.6 4.4
Jan-2019 3.5 6.8 4.8
Feb-2019 3.3 6.9 4.3
Mar-2019 3.4 6.6 4.7
Apr-2019 3.1 6.6 4.2
May-2019 3.3 6.2 4.2
Jun-2019 3.3 6 4.3
Jul-2019 3.3 5.9 4.5
Aug-2019 3.4 5.4 4.2
Sep-2019 3.2 5.5 3.9
Oct-2019 3.2 5.5 4.1
Nov-2019 3.2 5.6 4.2
Dec-2019 3.2 5.9 4.2
Jan-2020 3.1 6 4.3
Feb-2020 3.1 5.8 4.4
Mar-2020 4 6.7 6
Apr-2020 14.2 16.7 18.9
May-2020 12.4 16.8 17.6
Jun-2020 10.1% 15.4% 14.5%
ChartData Download data

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Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Population Survey, public data series

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Share of newly employed workers who said that they were not actively searching for work in the previous month

date Share of newly employed workers who said that they were not actively searching for work in the previous month
Apr-1990 61.91%
May-1990 62.55%
Jun-1990 61.98%
Jul-1990 62.01%
Aug-1990 61.56%
Sep-1990 62.30%
Oct-1990 61.03%
Nov-1990 61.24%
Dec-1990 60.36%
Jan-1991 59.87%
Feb-1991 58.97%
Mar-1991 58.51%
Apr-1991 57.68%
May-1991 57.58%
Jun-1991 57.20%
Jul-1991 58.03%
Aug-1991 57.75%
Sep-1991 57.72%
Oct-1991 57.27%
Nov-1991 56.94%
Dec-1991 57.05%
Jan-1992 56.81%
Feb-1992 57.08%
Mar-1992 57.11%
Apr-1992 57.16%
May-1992 57.30%
Jun-1992 56.58%
Jul-1992 56.42%
Aug-1992 56.13%
Sep-1992 55.95%
Oct-1992 55.74%
Nov-1992 55.83%
Dec-1992 56.14%
Jan-1993 56.61%
Feb-1993 57.70%
Mar-1993 58.25%
Apr-1993 58.41%
May-1993 58.24%
Jun-1993 58.06%
Jul-1993 57.54%
Aug-1993 57.51%
Sep-1993 58.03%
Oct-1993 58.92%
Nov-1993 58.48%
Dec-1993 58.30%
Jan-1994 58.76%
Feb-1994 59.24%
Mar-1994 59.09%
Apr-1994 58.66%
May-1994 58.31%
Jun-1994 58.47%
Jul-1994 58.58%
Aug-1994 59.04%
Sep-1994 59.14%
Oct-1994 59.80%
Nov-1994 60.09%
Dec-1994 60.32%
Jan-1995 60.35%
Feb-1995 59.53%
Mar-1995 59.69%
Apr-1995 59.74%
May-1995 59.22%
Jun-1995 59.54%
Jul-1995 59.50%
Aug-1995 59.97%
Sep-1995 60.22%
Oct-1995 59.86%
Nov-1995 60.61%
Dec-1995 59.90%
Jan-1996 59.78%
Feb-1996 60.28%
Mar-1996 60.69%
Apr-1996 60.99%
May-1996 60.71%
Jun-1996 60.85%
Jul-1996 61.46%
Aug-1996 60.78%
Sep-1996 60.92%
Oct-1996 60.24%
Nov-1996 60.56%
Dec-1996 59.62%
Jan-1997 59.08%
Feb-1997 58.93%
Mar-1997 60.28%
Apr-1997 61.40%
May-1997 61.77%
Jun-1997 61.13%
Jul-1997 60.35%
Aug-1997 61.26%
Sep-1997 61.89%
Oct-1997 62.50%
Nov-1997 62.69%
Dec-1997 62.83%
Jan-1998 63.34%
Feb-1998 62.70%
Mar-1998 62.88%
Apr-1998 62.38%
May-1998 63.49%
Jun-1998 63.25%
Jul-1998 64.18%
Aug-1998 63.98%
Sep-1998 65.24%
Oct-1998 65.14%
Nov-1998 65.06%
Dec-1998 64.93%
Jan-1999 65.59%
Feb-1999 65.54%
Mar-1999 64.20%
Apr-1999 65.28%
May-1999 66.12%
Jun-1999 67.42%
Jul-1999 66.38%
Aug-1999 65.65%
Sep-1999 65.35%
Oct-1999 65.50%
Nov-1999 65.26%
Dec-1999 65.11%
Jan-2000 64.37%
Feb-2000 65.40%
Mar-2000 65.66%
Apr-2000 65.87%
May-2000 65.60%
Jun-2000 65.92%
Jul-2000 65.39%
Aug-2000 65.47%
Sep-2000 65.60%
Oct-2000 66.51%
Nov-2000 67.39%
Dec-2000 68.09%
Jan-2001 69.03%
Feb-2001 68.55%
Mar-2001 67.91%
Apr-2001 66.88%
May-2001 65.76%
Jun-2001 65.32%
Jul-2001 65.75%
Aug-2001 66.18%
Sep-2001 66.57%
Oct-2001 65.46%
Nov-2001 64.39%
Dec-2001 62.92%
Jan-2002 62.56%
Feb-2002 62.33%
Mar-2002 61.68%
Apr-2002 61.94%
May-2002 62.81%
Jun-2002 64.43%
Jul-2002 64.51%
Aug-2002 64.04%
Sep-2002 63.05%
Oct-2002 63.07%
Nov-2002 63.70%
Dec-2002 64.09%
Jan-2003 64.21%
Feb-2003 64.19%
Mar-2003 64.49%
Apr-2003 64.28%
May-2003 63.65%
Jun-2003 63.54%
Jul-2003 63.05%
Aug-2003 63.24%
Sep-2003 63.43%
Oct-2003 64.32%
Nov-2003 64.73%
Dec-2003 63.66%
Jan-2004 63.62%
Feb-2004 63.43%
Mar-2004 64.88%
Apr-2004 64.32%
May-2004 64.29%
Jun-2004 63.73%
Jul-2004 64.21%
Aug-2004 64.54%
Sep-2004 64.10%
Oct-2004 64.23%
Nov-2004 63.98%
Dec-2004 64.44%
Jan-2005 64.64%
Feb-2005 64.77%
Mar-2005 64.87%
Apr-2005 65.12%
May-2005 65.76%
Jun-2005 66.09%
Jul-2005 66.57%
Aug-2005 65.87%
Sep-2005 66.54%
Oct-2005 66.17%
Nov-2005 65.95%
Dec-2005 65.92%
Jan-2006 65.79%
Feb-2006 67.29%
Mar-2006 67.26%
Apr-2006 67.64%
May-2006 67.31%
Jun-2006 67.18%
Jul-2006 66.71%
Aug-2006 66.40%
Sep-2006 65.90%
Oct-2006 66.91%
Nov-2006 67.63%
Dec-2006 68.30%
Jan-2007 68.03%
Feb-2007 67.01%
Mar-2007 66.48%
Apr-2007 65.82%
May-2007 66.20%
Jun-2007 67.60%
Jul-2007 67.68%
Aug-2007 67.56%
Sep-2007 66.87%
Oct-2007 66.99%
Nov-2007 67.49%
Dec-2007 66.60%
Jan-2008 66.40%
Feb-2008 65.45%
Mar-2008 65.60%
Apr-2008 64.74%
May-2008 65.14%
Jun-2008 64.94%
Jul-2008 65.27%
Aug-2008 64.24%
Sep-2008 62.91%
Oct-2008 62.13%
Nov-2008 61.91%
Dec-2008 62.30%
Jan-2009 62.22%
Feb-2009 61.64%
Mar-2009 60.79%
Apr-2009 59.80%
May-2009 59.64%
Jun-2009 58.27%
Jul-2009 57.46%
Aug-2009 56.99%
Sep-2009 56.76%
Oct-2009 57.64%
Nov-2009 56.75%
Dec-2009 57.69%
Jan-2010 57.86%
Feb-2010 58.77%
Mar-2010 58.67%
Apr-2010 57.39%
May-2010 56.43%
Jun-2010 56.57%
Jul-2010 57.23%
Aug-2010 58.44%
Sep-2010 58.81%
Oct-2010 58.89%
Nov-2010 58.93%
Dec-2010 58.43%
Jan-2011 59.14%
Feb-2011 59.47%
Mar-2011 60.14%
Apr-2011 60.35%
May-2011 60.22%
Jun-2011 59.68%
Jul-2011 59.78%
Aug-2011 59.58%
Sep-2011 60.64%
Oct-2011 59.75%
Nov-2011 59.83%
Dec-2011 59.07%
Jan-2012 59.15%
Feb-2012 59.13%
Mar-2012 59.43%
Apr-2012 60.28%
May-2012 60.91%
Jun-2012 61.59%
Jul-2012 61.78%
Aug-2012 62.33%
Sep-2012 62.28%
Oct-2012 61.99%
Nov-2012 61.84%
Dec-2012 62.51%
Jan-2013 62.22%
Feb-2013 61.55%
Mar-2013 61.63%
Apr-2013 63.06%
May-2013 63.46%
Jun-2013 63.16%
Jul-2013 62.29%
Aug-2013 62.90%
Sep-2013 63.49%
Oct-2013 64.29%
Nov-2013 64.11%
Dec-2013 63.55%
Jan-2014 63.95%
Feb-2014 63.56%
Mar-2014 63.91%
Apr-2014 62.79%
May-2014 64.24%
Jun-2014 64.45%
Jul-2014 66.02%
Aug-2014 65.52%
Sep-2014 65.33%
Oct-2014 64.91%
Nov-2014 65.27%
Dec-2014 65.75%
Jan-2015 67.20%
Feb-2015 67.84%
Mar-2015 68.47%
Apr-2015 68.06%
May-2015 68.53%
Jun-2015 68.09%
Jul-2015 68.85%
Aug-2015 68.61%
Sep-2015 68.80%
Oct-2015 68.65%
Nov-2015 68.53%
Dec-2015 68.95%
Jan-2016 68.73%
Feb-2016 69.90%
Mar-2016 70.65%
Apr-2016 70.84%
May-2016 69.70%
Jun-2016 68.98%
Jul-2016 68.67%
Aug-2016 69.41%
Sep-2016 69.23%
Oct-2016 68.25%
Nov-2016 67.52%
Dec-2016 68.62%
Jan-2017 69.51%
Feb-2017 69.30%
Mar-2017 69.20%
Apr-2017 69.62%
May-2017 70.17%
Jun-2017 70.40%
Jul-2017 69.87%
Aug-2017 70.59%
Sep-2017 70.44%
Oct-2017 70.67%
Nov-2017 70.51%
Dec-2017 70.49%
Jan-2018 71.39%
Feb-2018 71.35%
Mar-2018 71.19%
Apr-2018 70.99%
May-2018 71.19%
Jun-2018 72.20%
Jul-2018 72.68%
Aug-2018 72.86%
Sep-2018 72.97%
Oct-2018 72.90%
Nov-2018 72.88%
Dec-2018 72.80%
Jan-2019 72.56%
Feb-2019 72.67%
Mar-2019 72.00%
Apr-2019 72.10%
May-2019 73.00%
Jun-2019 73.70%
Jul-2019 74.18%
Aug-2019 73.85%
Sep-2019 73.74%
Oct-2019 74.53%
Nov-2019 74.45%
Dec-2019 74.20%
Jan-2020 73.21%
Feb-2020 72.63%
Mar-2020 73.14%
Apr-2020 73.09%
May-2020 62.75%
Jun-2020 50.42%
ChartData Download data

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Note: Because of volatility in these data, the line reflects three month moving averages

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Labor Force Flows: Unemployed to Employed (16 Years and Over) [LNS17100000], and Not in Labor Force to Employed (16 years and over) [LNS17200000], retrieved from FRED (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis).

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